Pharmacokinetics of once-daily etravirine without and with once-daily darunavir/ritonavir in antiretroviral-naive HIV type-1-infected adults
ABSTRACT A pharmacokinetic trial was conducted to evaluate the potential for once-daily etravirine in antiretroviral regimens without and with darunavir/ritonavir.
During this multicentre, open-label, Phase IIa trial, treatment-naive patients aged > or =18 years with HIV type-1 (HIV-1) received etravirine 400 mg once daily with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine 300/200 mg once daily from days 1-14; on days 15-28, darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily was added. On day 29, etravirine was discontinued and patients continued with the other medications to day 42. Serial blood sampling for etravirine pharmacokinetics was performed over 24 h on day 14 and 28; patients fasted for > or =10 h prior to these visits.
Of 23 enrolled patients (male 87%, Caucasian 39%), pharmacokinetic profiles for etravirine were available for 21 and 20 patients on day 14 and 28, respectively. The plasma concentration-time profile and pharmacokinetics for etravirine were unchanged with or without darunavir/ritonavir. The mean maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) was reached 4 h after administration and was 790 and 801 ng/ml on day 14 and 28, respectively; mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from before administration to 24 h after administration was 10,410 ng*h/ml on day 14 and 10,720 ng*h/ml on day 28. In a post-hoc analysis, etravirine C(max) was higher, minimum plasma concentration was lower and AUC was similar when compared with etravirine 200 mg twice daily.
Addition of darunavir/ritonavir to etravirine, all dosed once daily, did not have a clinically significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of etravirine. Findings support further investigation of etravirine 400 mg once daily in HIV-1-infected patients. (Trial registration number NCT00534352.).
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ABSTRACT: Etravirine (ETR) was approved for patients with virological failure and antiretroviral resistance mutations. It has also shown antiviral efficacy in antiretroviral-naïve patients. However, data on the switching from protease inhibitors (PI) to ETR are lacking. HIV-1-infected patients with suppressed viral load (VL) during a PI-containing regimen (>12 months) and no previous virological failure were randomized to switch from the PI to ETR (400 mg/day, dissolved in water) (ETR group, n = 22) or to continue with the same regimen (control group, n = 21). Percentage of patients with VL≤50 copies/mL were assessed at week 48, as well as changes in CD4 T-cell counts and metabolic profile. We included 43 patients [72.9% male, 46.3 (42.2; 50.6) years]. Two patients receiving ETR (grade-1 diarrhea and voluntary discontinuation) and another in the control group (simplification) discontinued therapy early. No patients presented virological failure (two consecutive VL>50 copies/mL); treatment was successful in 95.2% of the control group and 90.9% of the ETR group (intention-to-treat analysis, missing = failure) (p = 0.58). CD4+ T-cell counts did not significantly vary [+49 cells/µL in the ETR group (p = 0.25) and -4 cells/µL in the control group (p = 0.71)]. The ETR group showed significant reductions in cholesterol (p<0.001), triglycerides (p = <0.001), and glycemia (p = 0.03) and higher satisfaction (0-10 scale) (p = 0.04). Trough plasma concentrations of ETR were similar to observed in studies using ETR twice daily. Switch from a PI-based regimen to a once-daily combination based on ETR maintained undetectable VL during 48 weeks in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients while lipid profile and patient satisfaction improved significantly. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01034917.PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e84676. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0084676 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Unlike other nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, etravirine is only approved for use in treatment-experienced patients. In the DUET 1 and 2 trials, 1203 highly treatment-experienced patients were randomized to etravirine or placebo, in combination with darunavir/ritonavir and optimized background treatment. In these trials, etravirine showed significantly higher rates of HIV RNA suppression when compared with placebo (61% versus 40% at Week 48). There was no significant rise of lipids or neuropsychiatric adverse events, but there was an increase in the risk of rash with etravirine treatment. In the SENSE trial, which evaluated etravirine and efavirenz in 157 treatment-naïve patients in combination with 2 nucleoside analogues, there was a lower risk of lipid elevations and neuropsychiatric adverse events with etravirine when compared to efavirenz. Etravirine has been evaluated in three randomized switching studies. In the SSAT029 switch trial, 38 patients who had neuropsychiatric adverse events possibly related to efavirenz showed an improvement in these after switching to etravirine. The Swiss Switch-EE recruited 58 individuals without neuropsychiatric adverse events who were receiving efavirenz, and no benefit was shown when switching to etravirine. In the Spanish ETRA-SWITCH trial (n = 46), there were improvements in lipids when individuals switched from a protease inhibitor to etravirine. These switching trials were conducted in patients with full HIV RNA suppression: <50 copies/mL and with no history of virological failure or resistance to therapy. The results from these three randomized switching studies suggest a possible new role for etravirine, in combination with two nucleoside analogues, as a switching option for those with HIV RNA suppression but who are reporting adverse events possibly related to antiretroviral therapy. However a large well-powered trial would need to be conducted to strengthen the evidence from the pilot studies conducted so far.AIDS research and treatment 01/2014; 2014:636584. DOI:10.1155/2014/636584
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ABSTRACT: The ability to dose antiretroviral agents once daily simplifies the often complex therapeutic regimens required for the successful treatment of HIV infection. Thus, once-daily dosing can lead to improved patient adherence to medication and, consequently, sustained virological suppression and reduction in the risk of emergence of drug resistance. Several trials have evaluated once-daily darunavir/ritonavir in combination with other antiretrovirals (ARTEMIS and ODIN trials) or as monotherapy (MONET, MONOI and PROTEA trials) in HIV-1-infected adults. Data from ARTEMIS and ODIN demonstrate non-inferiority of once-daily darunavir/ritonavir against a comparator and, together with pharmacokinetic data, have established the suitability of once-daily darunavir/ritonavir for treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients with no darunavir resistance-associated mutations. The findings of ARTEMIS and ODIN have led to recent updates to treatment guidelines, whereby once-daily darunavir/ritonavir, given with other antiretrovirals, is now a preferred treatment option for antiretroviral-naive adult patients and a simplified treatment option for antiretroviral-experienced adults who have no darunavir resistance-associated mutations. Once-daily dosing with darunavir/ritonavir is an option for treatment-naive and for treatment-experienced paediatric patients with no darunavir resistance-associated mutations based on the findings of the DIONE trial and ARIEL substudy. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety and tolerability of once-daily boosted darunavir. The feasibility of darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy as a treatment approach for some patients is also discussed. Finally, data on a fixed-dose combination of 800/150 mg of darunavir/cobicistat once daily are presented, showing comparable darunavir bioavailability to that obtained with 800/100 mg of darunavir/ritonavir once daily.Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 06/2014; 69(10). DOI:10.1093/jac/dku193 · 5.44 Impact Factor