Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor δ Regulates Inflammation via NF-κB Signaling in Polymicrobial Sepsis

Division of Critical Care Medicine, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center and College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA.
American Journal Of Pathology (Impact Factor: 4.6). 10/2010; 177(4):1834-47. DOI: 10.2353/ajpath.2010.091010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) is an important regulator of lipid metabolism. In contrast to its known effects on energy homeostasis, its biological role on inflammation is not well understood. We investigated the role of PPARδ in the modulation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-driven inflammatory response to polymicrobial sepsis in vivo and in macrophages in vitro. We demonstrated that administration of GW0742, a specific PPARδ ligand, provided beneficial effects to rats subjected to cecal ligation and puncture, as shown by reduced systemic release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and neutrophil infiltration in lung, liver, and cecum, when compared with vehicle treatment. Molecular analysis revealed that treatment with GW0742 reduced NF-κB binding to DNA in lung and liver. In parallel experiments, heterozygous PPARδ-deficient mice suffered exaggerated lethality when subjected to cecal ligation and puncture and exhibited severe lung injury and higher levels of circulating tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and keratinocyte-derived chemokine than wild-type mice. Furthermore, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated J774.A1 macrophages, GW0742 reduced TNFα production by inhibiting NF-κB activation. RNA silencing of PPARδ abrogated the inhibitory effects of GW0742 on TNFα production. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that PPARδ displaced the NF-κB p65 subunit from the κB elements of the TNFα promoter, while recruiting the co-repressor BCL6. These data suggest that PPARδ is a crucial anti-inflammatory regulator, providing a basis for novel sepsis therapies.

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Available from: James A Cook, Jul 17, 2015
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