Proliferative and protective effects of SurR9-C84A on differentiated neural cells
ABSTRACT Targeting survivin has the ability to inhibit apoptosis and regulate mitosis for the protection of neuronal cells, and it offers several advantages for neuronal repair and protection. We found that the BIR motif mutant of survivin (SurR9-C84A) can bind to microtubules and regulate their stability, induce cell division, increase proliferation and activate the expression of cell cycle and neuronal markers in differentiated SK-N-SH and HCN-2 neurons. We further showed the protective effects of SurR9-C84A against post differentiation retinoic acid induced neurotoxicity. These abilities of SurR9-C84A offer a great potential for future neuronal repair therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Apoptosis is an important contributing factor during neuronal death in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders, including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and sciatic nerve injury. Whereas several clinical and preclinical studies have focused on the neuroprotective effects of caspase inhibitors, their clinical benefits are still unclear. Here, we discuss novel alternative strategies to protect neuronal cells from apoptotic death using members of the inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) family. We specifically review the different roles of survivin, which is an important member of the IAP family that serves a dual role in the inhibition of apoptosis as well as a vital role in mitosis and cell division. Due to the various roles of survivin during cell division and apoptosis, targeting this protein illustrates a new therapeutic window for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 10/2010; 45(6):535-54. DOI:10.3109/10409238.2010.516740 · 5.81 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: HBT on LEO GaN[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dramatic progress in GaN electronics has led to increased interest in bipolar transistors. Although there have been reports of GaN bipolars from several groups, the development of the GaN bipolar transistor is still in its fundamental stages. In the case of GaN, the usual correlation between common base, Gummel, and common emitter characteristics does not exist due to significant collector-emitter leakage, leaving only the common emitter characteristic as a reliable measure of DC device performance. We identify the source of this leakage as threading dislocations and clarify the effect of this leakage on the transistor DC characteristics. Furthermore, we conclude from various growth structures and methods of device fabrication that the electron lifetime in the neutral base is currently the limiting factor in GaN NPN transistor performance. Typical GaN material has high threading dislocation densities, 10<sup>7</sup>-10<sup>9</sup> cm<sup>-2</sup>, due to lattice mismatch with the substrate, typically sapphire or SiC. To study the effects of threading dislocations on GaN bipolar transistors, we have fabricated devices on material grown using the lateral epitaxial overgrowth technique, LEO. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first demonstration of GaN bipolar transistors grown on nondislocated material. The LEO substrate allows us to compare devices grown on material with a negligible dislocation density with those grown on a standard templateDevice Research Conference, 2000. Conference Digest. 58th DRC; 02/2000
Conference Paper: Preparation and thermoelectric properties of ZnO-TiB2 composites[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: ZnO and TiB<sub>2</sub> are chosen as a thermoelectric (TE) phase and a highly conducting phase, respectively, to construct two-phase ball-shell-type composites. ZnO-coated TiB<sub>2</sub> powders are prepared via sol-gel processing and are then hot pressed in vacuum. The TiB<sub>2</sub> grains in the hot-pressed composite samples are coated with an interfacial layer that consists of Zn<sub>3</sub>B<sub>2</sub>O<sub>6</sub>, TiO<sub>2</sub>, Zn<sub>2</sub>TiO<sub>4</sub>, and ZnB<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub>, rather than ZnO, due to the reactions between ZnO and TiB<sub>2</sub> during sintering. The thermal and electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the composites were measured in dependence on temperature. The thermoelectric properties of the composite samples are compared to pure ZnO.Thermoelectrics, 2002. Proceedings ICT '02. Twenty-First International Conference on; 09/2002