The prognostic impact of an abnormal initial renal ultrasound on early reflux resolution
ABSTRACT In a group of children diagnosed with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) we evaluated renal ultrasound findings, associated findings on renal scan, and prognostic impact on VUR resolution.
Medical records were reviewed for children with primary reflux and no history of antenatal hydronephrosis who underwent an initial renal ultrasound. Abnormal renal ultrasound was defined as hydronephrosis or relative difference in renal size ≥1 cm. Reflux resolution was evaluated at 2 years post diagnosis.
In 129 children with VUR (111 girls, 18 boys), 39 (30%) had an abnormal renal ultrasound. Two-year VUR resolution in the abnormal renal ultrasound group was 21% versus 46% in the group with normal renal ultrasound (P = 0.01). Combining grade II and III reflux, an abnormal ultrasound was associated with a statistically significantly lower resolution rate (grade II-III 23% vs 47%, P = 0.049). For children with moderate hydronephrosis, 8/9 (89%) had abnormal initial renal scans and all failed to achieve resolution of reflux at 2 years.
In this cohort of children with VUR, 30% had abnormalities on renal ultrasound. The presence of moderate hydronephrosis on ultrasound may indicate a high likelihood of abnormality on renal scan and failure to achieve early resolution of VUR.
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ABSTRACT: Approaches to the management of children with urinary tract infection (UTI), vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), and renal scars have been challenged and have become controversial over the past decade. It is difficult to determine when, how, and which patients will benefit from the diagnosis and management of this condition. Therefore, the issues of diagnostic imaging, observation, follow-up, and intervention tend to be decided more on a case-by-case basis, rather than by using an algorithm. Over the past few years, there have been advances in the identification of risk factors that predispose patients with UTI to present with VUR, to develop recurrent UTIs and renal scars, to have deteriorating renal function, to show VUR improvement and/or spontaneous resolution, and to be candidates for and benefit from early surgical intervention.Clinical Pediatrics 12/2013; 53(12). DOI:10.1177/0009922813515744 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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