Development of Preschool and Academic Skills in Children Born Very Preterm
ABSTRACT To examine performance in preschool and academic skills in very preterm (gestational age ≤ 30 weeks) and term-born comparison children aged 4 to 12 years.
Very preterm children (n = 200; mean age, 8.2 ± 2.5 years) born between 1996 and 2004 were compared with 230 term-born children (mean age, 8.3 ± 2.3). The Dutch National Pupil Monitoring System was used to measure preschool numerical reasoning and early linguistics, and primary school simple and complex word reading, reading comprehension, spelling, and mathematics/arithmetic. With univariate analyses of variance, we assessed the effects of preterm birth on performance across grades and on grade retention.
In preschool, very preterm children performed comparably with term-born children in early linguistics, but perform more poorly (0.7 standard deviation [SD]) in numerical reasoning skills. In primary school, very preterm children scored 0.3 SD lower in complex word reading and 0.6 SD lower in mathematics/arithmetic, but performed comparably with peers in reading comprehension and spelling. They had a higher grade repeat rate (25.5%), although grade repeat did not improve their academic skills.
Very preterm children do well in early linguistics, reading comprehension, and spelling, but have clinically significant deficits in numerical reasoning skills and mathematics/arithmetic, which persist with time.
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ABSTRACT: Context: All over the the world, preterm birth is a major cause of death and important neurodevelopmental disorders. Approximately 9.6% (12.9 million) births worldwide are preterm. Evidence Acquisition: In this review, databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, Scopus, Google Scholar and Iranian databases including Iranmedex, and SID were researched to review relevant literature. A comprehensive search was performed using combinations of various keywords. Results: Cerebral palsy especially spastic diplegia, intellectual disability, visual (retinopathy of prematurity) and hearing impairments are the main neurodevelopmental disorders associated with prematurity. Conclusions: The increased survival of preterm infants was not associated with lower complications. There is now increasing evidence of sustained adverse outcomes into school age and adolescence, for preterm infants. Keywords:Neurodevelopment; Impairment; Preterm Birth; Low Birth Weight06/2014; 16(6). DOI:10.5812/ircmj.17965
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Children born very preterm (VPT) are at high risk of educational delay, yet few guidelines exist for the early identification of those at greatest risk. Using a school readiness framework, this study examined relations between preschool neurodevelopmental functioning and educational outcomes to age 9 years. METHODS: The sample consisted of a regional cohort of 110 VPT (<= 32 weeks' gestation) and 113 full-term children born during 1998-2000. At corrected age 4 years, children completed a multidisciplinary assessment of their health/motor development, socioemotional adjustment, core learning skills, language, and general cognition. At ages 6 and 9, children's literacy and numeracy skills were assessed using the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. RESULTS: Across all readiness domains, VPT children were at high risk of delay/impairment (odds ratios 2.5-3.5). Multiple problems were also more common (47% vs 16%). At follow-up, almost two-thirds of VPT children were subject to significant educational delay in either literacy, numeracy or both compared with 29% to 31% of full-term children (odds ratios 3.4-4.4). The number of readiness domains affected at age 4 strongly predicted later educational risk, especially when multiple problems were present. Receiver operating characteristic analysis confirmed >= 2 readiness problems as the optimal threshold for identifying VPT children at educational risk. CONCLUSIONS: School readiness offers a promising framework for the early identification of VPT children at high educational risk. Findings support the utility of >= 2 affected readiness domains as an effective criterion for referral for educational surveillance and/or additional support during the transition to school.Pediatrics 08/2014; 134(3). DOI:10.1542/peds.2013-3865 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We previously reported decreased transfusions and donor exposures in preterm infants randomized to Darbepoetin (Darbe) or erythropoietin (Epo) compared with placebo. As these erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) have shown promise as neuroprotective agents, we hypothesized improved neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 to 22 months among infants randomized to receive ESAs. We performed a randomized, masked, multicenter study comparing Darbe (10 μg/kg, 1×/week subcutaneously), Epo (400 U/kg, 3×/week subcutaneously), and placebo (sham dosing 3×/week) given through 35 weeks' postconceptual age, with transfusions administered according to a standardized protocol. Surviving infants were evaluated at 18 to 22 months' corrected age using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. The primary outcome was composite cognitive score. Assessments of object permanence, anthropometrics, cerebral palsy, vision, and hearing were performed. Of the original 102 infants (946 ± 196 g, 27.7 ± 1.8 weeks' gestation), 80 (29 Epo, 27 Darbe, 24 placebo) returned for follow-up. The 3 groups were comparable for age at testing, birth weight, and gestational age. After adjustment for gender, analysis of covariance revealed significantly higher cognitive scores among Darbe (96.2 ± 7.3; mean ± SD) and Epo recipients (97.9 ± 14.3) compared with placebo recipients (88.7 ± 13.5; P = .01 vs ESA recipients) as was object permanence (P = .05). No ESA recipients had cerebral palsy, compared with 5 in the placebo group (P < .001). No differences among groups were found in visual or hearing impairment. Infants randomized to receive ESAs had better cognitive outcomes, compared with placebo recipients, at 18 to 22 months. Darbe and Epo may prove beneficial in improving long-term cognitive outcomes of preterm infants.PEDIATRICS 05/2014; 133(6). DOI:10.1542/peds.2013-4307 · 5.30 Impact Factor