Development of Preschool and Academic Skills in Children Born Very Preterm
ABSTRACT To examine performance in preschool and academic skills in very preterm (gestational age ≤ 30 weeks) and term-born comparison children aged 4 to 12 years.
Very preterm children (n = 200; mean age, 8.2 ± 2.5 years) born between 1996 and 2004 were compared with 230 term-born children (mean age, 8.3 ± 2.3). The Dutch National Pupil Monitoring System was used to measure preschool numerical reasoning and early linguistics, and primary school simple and complex word reading, reading comprehension, spelling, and mathematics/arithmetic. With univariate analyses of variance, we assessed the effects of preterm birth on performance across grades and on grade retention.
In preschool, very preterm children performed comparably with term-born children in early linguistics, but perform more poorly (0.7 standard deviation [SD]) in numerical reasoning skills. In primary school, very preterm children scored 0.3 SD lower in complex word reading and 0.6 SD lower in mathematics/arithmetic, but performed comparably with peers in reading comprehension and spelling. They had a higher grade repeat rate (25.5%), although grade repeat did not improve their academic skills.
Very preterm children do well in early linguistics, reading comprehension, and spelling, but have clinically significant deficits in numerical reasoning skills and mathematics/arithmetic, which persist with time.
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- "Children born extremely preterm continue exhibiting difficulties in cognition, inhibition , and perceptual-motor skills in kindergarten compared to peers born full term . Difficulty with executive function persists into school age, especially in the areas of response inhibition, planning, and verbal and spatial working memory skills    . "
ABSTRACT: Background Difficulties with executive function have been found in preterm children, resulting in difficulties with learning and school performance. Aim This study evaluated the relationship of early working memory as measured by object permanence items to the cognitive and language scores on the Bayley Scales-III in a cohort of children born extremely preterm. Study design Logistic regression models were conducted to compare object permanence scores derived from the Bayley Scales-III by race/ethnicity and maternal education, controlling for medical covariates. Subjects Extremely preterm toddlers (526), who were part of a Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network's multi-center study, were evaluated at 18–22 months corrected age. Outcome measures Object permanence scores derived from the Bayley Developmental Scales were compared by race/ethnicity and maternal education, controlling for medical covariates. Results There were no significant differences in object permanence mastery and scores among the treatment groups after controlling for medical and social variables, including maternal education and race/ethnicity. Males and children with intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia were less likely to demonstrate object permanence mastery and had lower object permanence scores. Children who attained object permanence mastery had significantly higher Bayley Scales-III cognitive and language scores after controlling for medical and socio-economic factors. Conclusions Our measure of object permanence is free of influence from race, ethnic and socio-economic factors. Adding this simple task to current clinical practice could help detect early executive function difficulties in young children.Early human development 12/2013; 89(12):1055–1061. DOI:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2013.08.009 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess learning problems among kindergarten students with extremely preterm birth and to identify risk factors. Cohort study. Children's hospital. A cohort of 148 children born between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2003, with extremely preterm birth, defined as less than 28 weeks' gestation or having a birth weight of less than 1000 g, and 111 classmate control individuals born at term with normal birth weight. The children were enrolled in the study during their first year in kindergarten and were assessed on measures of learning progress. Achievement testing, teacher ratings of learning progress, and individual educational assistance. Children with extremely preterm birth had lower mean standard scores than controls on achievement tests of spelling (8.52; 95% confidence interval, 4.58-12.46) and applied mathematics (11.02; 6.76-15.28). They had higher rates of substandard learning progress by teacher report in written language (odds ratio, 4.23; 95% CI, 2.32-7.73) and mathematics (7.08; 2.79-17.95). Group differences in mathematics achievement and in teacher ratings of learning progress were statistically significant even in children without neurosensory deficits or low global cognitive ability. Neonatal risk factors, early childhood neurodevelopmental impairment, and socioeconomic status predicted learning problems in children with extremely preterm birth; however, many children with problems were not enrolled in a special education program. Learning problems in children with extremely preterm birth are evident in kindergarten and are associated with neonatal and early childhood risk factors. Our findings support efforts to provide more extensive monitoring and interventions before and during the first year of school.JAMA Pediatrics 09/2011; 165(9):819-25. DOI:10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.137 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine executive functioning in very preterm (gestational age ≤30 wks) children at 4 to 12 years of age. Two-hundred very preterm (106 males, 94 females; mean gestational age 28.1wks, SD 1.4; mean age 8y 2mo, SD 2y 6mo) and 230 term children (106 males, 124 females; mean gestational age 39.9wks, SD 1.2; mean age 8y 4mo, SD 2y 3mo) without severe disabilities, born between 1996 and 2004, were assessed on an executive function battery comprising response inhibition, interference control, switching, verbal fluency, verbal and spatial working memory, and planning. Multiple regression analyses examined group differences while adjusting for effects of parental education, age, sex, and speed indices. Relative to children born at term, very preterm children had significant (p(s) <0.02; where p(s) represents p-values) deficits in verbal fluency (0.5 standardized mean differences [SMD]), response inhibition (0.4 SMD), planning (0.4 SMD), and verbal and spatial working memory (0.3 SMD), independent of slow and highly fluctuating processing speed. A significant group by age interaction indicated that group differences for response inhibition decreased between 4 and 12 years. Very preterm birth is associated with a profile of affected and non-affected executive functions independent of impaired speed. Deficits are of small to moderate magnitude and persist over time, except for response inhibition for which very preterm children catch up with peers.Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 11/2011; 54(3):247-53. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2011.04150.x · 3.29 Impact Factor