The inhibitory effects of Gelam honey and its extracts on nitric oxide and prostaglandin E(2) in inflammatory tissues.
ABSTRACT We investigated the effects of honey and its methanol and ethyl acetate extracts on inflammation in animal models. Rats' paws were induced with carrageenan in the non-immune inflammatory and nociceptive model, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the immune inflammatory model. Honey and its extracts were able to inhibit edema and pain in inflammatory tissues as well as showing potent inhibitory activities against NO and PGE(2) in both models. The decrease in edema and pain correlates with the inhibition of NO and PGE(2). Phenolic compounds have been implicated in the inhibitory activities. Honey is potentially useful in the treatment of inflammatory conditions.
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ABSTRACT: The antiinflammatory glucocorticoids are potent inhibitors of cyclooxygenase, a key regulator of prostaglandin synthesis; yet, the mechanism(s) by which this occurs is not fully understood. We have cloned a 4.1-kilobase (kb) cDNA, distinct from the previously cloned cyclooxygenase (2.8 kb), that confers cyclooxygenase activity to transfected cells. The mRNA for this newly discovered cyclooxygenase is unique for its long 3' untranslated region containing many AUUUA repeats. Levels of the 4.1-kb cyclooxygenase mRNA are rapidly increased by serum or interleukin 1 beta in mouse fibroblasts and human monocytes, respectively, and decreased by glucocorticoids, whereas levels of the 2.8-kb cyclooxygenase mRNA do not change. Similar effects are seen in the presence of cycloheximide where the 4.1-kb, but not the 2.8-kb, mRNA is greatly superinduced. Thus, there are both constitutive (2.8 kb) and regulated (4.1 kb) cyclooxygenase species, the latter most likely being a major mediator of inflammation.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/1992; 89(11):4888-92. · 9.74 Impact Factor
- Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 06/1991; 1083(2):121-34. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A HPLC method was developed for the separation and determination of flavonoid and phenolic antioxidants in cranberry juices. Free flavonoid and phenolic compounds were fractionated into neutral and acidic groups by means of a solid-phase extraction method, followed by subsequent HPLC separations. Combined flavonoids and phenolics were hydrolyzed by acid before HPLC analysis. This developed method provides a fast and high resolution of individual flavonoid and phenolic compounds. In cranberry fruit, flavonoids and phenolic acids exist predominantly in combined forms, such as glycosides and esters. A total of 400 mg of total flavonoids and phenolic compounds/l of sample was found in a freshly squeezed cranberry juice, which was distributed as about 44% of phenolic acids and 56% of flavonoids. Benzoic acid was the major phenolic compound. Major flavonoids in the freshly squeezed cranberry juice were quercetin and myricetin.Journal of Chromatography 05/2001; 913(1-2):387-95. · 4.61 Impact Factor