Article

Regulation of tumor angiogenesis by EZH2.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, U.T. M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Cancer cell (Impact Factor: 23.89). 08/2010; 18(2):185-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.ccr.2010.06.016
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although VEGF-targeted therapies are showing promise, new angiogenesis targets are needed to make additional gains. Here, we show that increased Zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) expression in either tumor cells or in tumor vasculature is predictive of poor clinical outcome. The increase in endothelial EZH2 is a direct result of VEGF stimulation by a paracrine circuit that promotes angiogenesis by methylating and silencing vasohibin1 (vash1). Ezh2 silencing in the tumor-associated endothelial cells inhibited angiogenesis mediated by reactivation of VASH1, and reduced ovarian cancer growth, which is further enhanced in combination with ezh2 silencing in tumor cells. Collectively, these data support the potential for targeting ezh2 as an important therapeutic approach.

0 Followers
 · 
311 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Accumulating data indicate that cancer stem cells contribute to tumor chemoresistance and their persistence alters clinical outcome. Our previous study has shown that ovarian cancer may be initiated by ovarian cancer initiating cells (OCIC) characterized by surface antigen CD44 and c-KIT (CD117). It has been experimentally demonstrated that a microRNA, namely miR-193a, targets c-KIT mRNA for degradation and could play a crucial role in ovarian cancer development. How miR-193a is regulated is poorly understood and the emerging picture is complex. To unravel this complexity, we propose a mathematical model to explore how estrogen-mediated up-regulation of another target of miR-193a, namely E2F6, can attenuate the function of miR-193a in two ways, one through a competition of E2F6 and c-KIT transcripts for miR-193a, and second by binding of E2F6 protein, in association with a polycomb complex, to the promoter of miR-193a to down-regulate its transcription. Our model predicts that this bimodal control increases the expression of c-KIT and that the second mode of epigenetic regulation is required to generate a switching behavior in c-KIT and E2F6 expressions. Additional analysis of the TCGA ovarian cancer dataset demonstrates that ovarian cancer patients with low expression of EZH2, a polycomb-group family protein, show positive correlation between E2F6 and c-KIT. We conjecture that a simultaneous EZH2 inhibition and anti-estrogen therapy can constitute an effective combined therapeutic strategy against ovarian cancer.
    PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e116050. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116050 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PCI-24781 is a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor that inhibits tumor proliferation and promotes cell apoptosis. However, it is unclear whether PCI-24781 inhibits Enhancer of Zeste 2 (EZH2) expression in malignant gliomas. In this work, three glioma cell lines were incubated with various concentrations of PCI-24781 (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5 μM) and analyzed for cell proliferation by the MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assay and colony formation, and cell cycle and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. The expression of EZH2 and apoptosis-related proteins was assessed by western blotting. Malignant glioma cells were also transfected with EZH2 siRNA to examine how PCI-24781 suppresses tumor cells. EZH2 was highly expressed in the three glioma cell lines. Incubation with PCI-24781 reduced cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis by down-regulating EZH2 in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects were simulated by EZH2 siRNA. In addition, PCI-24781 or EZH2 siRNA accelerated cell apoptosis by down-regulating the expression of AKT, mTOR, p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70s6k), glycogen synthase kinase 3A and B (GSK3a/b) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). These data suggest that PCI-24781 may be a promising therapeutic agent for treating gliomas by down-regulating EZH2 which promotes cell apoptosis by suppressing the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway.
    Genetics and Molecular Biology 10/2014; 37(4):716-24. DOI:10.1590/S1415-47572014005000011 · 0.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reorganization of cytoskeleton via actin remodeling is a basic step of cell locomotion. Although cell migration of normal and cancer cells can be stimulated by a variety of intra- and extra-cellular factors, all paths ultimate on the regulation of cofilin activity. Cofilin is a small actin-binding protein able to bind both forms of actin, globular and filament, and is regulated by phosphorylation at Serine 3. Following phosphorylation at serine 3 cofilin is inactive, therefore cannot bind actin molecules and cytoskeleton remodeling is impaired. The histone methyltransferase EZH2 is frequently over expressed in many tumour types including colorectal cancer (CRC). EZH2 over activity, which results in epigenetic gene-silencing, has been associated with many tumour properties including invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis but little is known about the underneath molecular mechanisms. Herein, we report that EZH2 is able to control cofilin activity and consequently cell locomotion of CRC cell lines through a non-conventional novel axis that involves integrin signaling. Indeed, we show how genetic and pharmacological inhibition (DZNep and GSK343) of EZH2 function produces hyper phosphorylation of cofilin and reduces cell migration. We previously demonstrated by chromatin immuno-precipitation that Integrin alpha 2 (ITGα2) expression is regulated by EZH2. In the present study we provide evidence that in EZH2-silenced cells the signaling activity of the de-repressed ITGα2 is able to increase cofilin phosphorylation, which in turn reduces cell migration. This study also proposes novel mechanisms that might provide new anti-metastatic strategies for CRC treatment based on the inhibition of the epigenetic factor EZH2 and/or its target gene.
    PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e115276. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0115276 · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
144 Downloads
Available from
May 22, 2014