Clinical and Cognitive Correlates of Depressive Symptoms Among Youth with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, CA, USA.
Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology (Impact Factor: 1.92). 08/2010; 39(5):616-26. DOI: 10.1080/15374416.2010.501285
Source: PubMed


Depression is the most common comorbidity among adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about depressive symptoms in childhood OCD. This study examined clinical and cognitive variables associated with depressive symptomatology in 71 youths (62% male, M age = 12.7 years) with primary OCD. Youths presented with a range of depressive symptoms, with 21% scoring at or above the clinical cutoff on the self-report measure of depression. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with higher levels of cognitive distortions assessed on measures of insight, perceived control, competence, and contingencies. Depressive symptoms were also linked to older age and more severe OCD. Low perceived control and self-competence and high OCD severity independently predicted depression scores.

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Available from: John Piacentini, Oct 01, 2015
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    • " significantly related to the compulsion and doubting of the MOCI scale , and thus explain the relationships between depression and OCD , anxiety and OCD , and helplessness and OCD . Previous studies reported that depression and anxiety were preva - lent among adolescents with OCD ( Fireman et al . , 2001 ; Geller , 2006 ; Leonard et al . , 2001 ; Peris et al . , 2010 ) , but the extent of the overlaps among the symptoms of OCD , depression , anxiety , help - lessness were not reported . Therefore , this needs to be assessed when an OCD diagnosis is conducted and may have implications for the treatment of youth with comorbid OCD , depression , anxiety , and feelings of helplessness . To prevent deter"
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Youth with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are at risk of experiencing comorbid psychiatric conditions, such as depression and anxiety. Studies of Chinese adolescents with OCD are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of depression, anxiety, and helplessness with the occurrence of OCD in Chinese adolescents. Methods: This study consisted of two stages. The first stage used a cross-sectional design involving a stratified clustered non-clinical sample of 3174 secondary school students. A clinical interview procedure was then employed to diagnose OCD in students who had a Leyton ‘yes’ score of 15 or above. The second phase used a case-control study design to examine the relationship of OCD to depression, anxiety and helplessness in a matched sample of 288 adolescents with clinically diagnosed OCD and 246 students without OCD. Results: Helplessness, depression and anxiety scores were directly associated with the probability of OCD caseness. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that the OCD correlated significantly with depression, anxiety, and helplessness. Cluster analysis further indicated the degree of the OCD is also associated with severity of depression and anxiety, and the level of helplessness. Conclusion: These findings suggest that depression, anxiety and helplessness are important correlates of OCD in Chinese adolescents. Future studies using longitudinal and prospective designs are required to confirm these relationships as causal. Key words: depression, anxiety, helplessness, obsessive-compulsive disorders, Chinese adolescents
    Journal of Affective Disorders 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.11.004 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    • "heoretically , depression may impede response to CBT for OCD for a number of reasons . Depression is characterised by pervasive hopelessness which may lead to lack of optimism and decrease motivation to engage in treatment . Similarly , reduced insight and low perceived self - competence in youth with depression may limit engagement with therapy ( Peris et al . 2010 ) . Alternatively , depression may alter the focus of the therapy ; therapists may need to concurrently treat depres - sive symptoms thus diluting treatment response . A number of studies have examined the effect of concur - rent depressive disorders and / or symptoms on OCD outcomes following CBT . The majority have been conducted with"
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    ABSTRACT: Depression frequently co-occurs with paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet the clinical correlates and impact of depression on CBT outcomes remain unclear. The prevalence and clinical correlates of depression were examined in a paediatric specialist OCD-clinic sample (N = 295; Mean = 15 [7 - 18] years, 42 % female), using both dimensional (Beck Depression Inventory-youth; n = 261) and diagnostic (Development and Wellbeing Assessment; n = 127) measures of depression. The impact of depressive symptoms and suspected disorders on post-treatment OCD severity was examined in a sub-sample who received CBT, with or without SSRI medication (N = 100). Fifty-one per-cent of patients reported moderately or extremely elevated depressive symptoms and 26 % (95 % CI: 18 - 34) met criteria for a suspected depressive disorder. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders were associated with worse OCD symptom severity and global functioning prior to CBT. Individuals with depression were more likely to be female, have had a psychiatric inpatient admission and less likely to be attending school (ps < 0.01). OCD and depressive symptom severity significantly decreased after CBT. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders predicted worse post-treatment OCD severity (βs = 0.19 and 0.26, ps < 0.05) but became non-significant when controlling for pre-treatment OCD severity (βs = 0.05 and 0.13, ns). Depression is common in paediatric OCD and is associated with more severe OCD and poorer functioning. However, depression severity decreases over the course of CBT for OCD and is not independently associated with worse outcomes, supporting the recommendation for treatment as usual in the presence of depressive symptoms.
    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 10/2014; 43(5). DOI:10.1007/s10802-014-9943-0 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    • "OCS) influences the likelihood of experiencing depressive symptoms (Jaffee & Price, 2007; Kendler & Baker, 2007), did not hold for the relationship between OCS and later depressive symptoms. This argues against the commonly held view that depressive symptoms arise secondarily to the burden caused by OCS (Peris et al. 2010; Storch et al. 2010, 2012; Anholt et al. 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Depression is commonly co-morbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, it is unknown whether depression is a functional consequence of OCD or whether these disorders share a common genetic aetiology. This longitudinal twin study compared these two hypotheses. Method Data were drawn from a longitudinal sample of adolescent twins and siblings (n = 2651; Genesis 12-19 study) and from a cross-sectional sample of adult twins (n = 4920). The longitudinal phenotypic associations between OCD symptoms (OCS) and depressive symptoms were examined using a cross-lag model. Multivariate twin analyses were performed to explore the genetic and environmental contributions to the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between OCS and depressive symptoms. In the longitudinal phenotypic analyses, OCS at time 1 (wave 2 of the Genesis 12-19 study) predicted depressive symptoms at time 2 (wave 3 of the Genesis 12-19 study) to a similar extent to which depressive symptoms at time 1 predicted OCS at time 2. Cross-sectional twin analyses in both samples indicated that common genetic factors explained 52-65% of the phenotypic correlation between OCS and depressive symptoms. The proportion of the phenotypic correlation due to common non-shared environmental factors was considerably smaller (35%). In the adolescent sample, the longitudinal association between OCS at time 1 and subsequent depressive symptoms was accounted for by the genetic association between OCS and depressive symptoms at time 1. There was no significant environmental association between OCS and later depressive symptoms. The present findings show that OCS and depressive symptoms co-occur primarily due to shared genetic factors and suggest that genetic, rather than environmental, effects account for the longitudinal relationship between OCS and depressive symptoms.
    Psychological Medicine 08/2013; 44(7):1-11. DOI:10.1017/S0033291713001591 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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