Dexmedetomidine Infusion for Analgesia and Prevention of Emergence Agitation in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Undergoing Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy

Associate Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Medical Science, Newark, NJ 07101, USA.
Anesthesia and analgesia (Impact Factor: 3.47). 10/2010; 111(4):1004-10. DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181ee82fa
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Dexmedetomidine, a specific α(2) agonist, has an analgesic-sparing effect and reduces emergence agitation. We compared an intraoperative dexmedetomidine infusion with bolus fentanyl to reduce perioperative opioid use and decrease emergence agitation in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome undergoing adenotonsillectomy (T&A).
One hundred twenty-two patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome undergoing T&A, ages 2 to 10 years, completed this prospective, randomized, U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved study. After mask induction with sevoflurane, group D received IV dexmedetomidine 2 μg · kg(-1) over 10 minutes, followed by 0.7 μg · kg(-1) · h(-1), and group F received IV fentanyl bolus 1 μg · kg(-1). Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane, oxygen, and nitrous oxide. Fentanyl 0.5 to 1 μg · kg(-1) was given to subjects in both groups for an increase in heart rate or systolic blood pressure 30% above preincision values that continued for 5 minutes. Observers in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) were blinded to treatment groups. Pain was evaluated using the objective pain score in the PACU on arrival, at 5 minutes, at 15 minutes, then every 15 minutes for 120 minutes. Emergence agitation was evaluated at the same intervals by 2 scales: the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and a 5-point scale described by Cole. Morphine (0.05 to 0.1 mg · kg(-1)) was given for pain (score >4) or severe agitation (score 4 or 5) lasting more than 5 minutes.
In group D, 9.8% patients needed intraoperative rescue fentanyl in comparison with 36% in group F (P = 0.001). Mean systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly lower in group D (P < 0.05). Minimum alveolar concentration values were significantly different between the 2 groups (P = 0.015). The median objective pain score was 3 for group D and 5 for group F (P = 0.001). In group D, 10 (16.3%) patients required rescue morphine, in comparison with 29 (47.5%) in group F (P = 0.002). The frequency of severe emergence agitation on arrival in the PACU was 18% in group D and 45.9% in group F (P = 0.004); at 5 minutes and at 15 minutes, it was lower in group D (P = 0.028). The duration of agitation on the Cole scale was statistically lower in group D (P = 0.004). In group D, 18% of patients and 40.9% in group F had an episode of Spo(2) below 95% (P = 0.01).
An intraoperative infusion of dexmedetomidine combined with inhalation anesthetics provided satisfactory intraoperative conditions for T&A without adverse hemodynamic effects. Postoperative opioid requirements were significantly reduced, and the incidence and duration of severe emergence agitation was lower with fewer patients having desaturation episodes.

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Available from: Catherine Schoenberg, Jun 22, 2015
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    • "Propofol is widely used for anesthesia and sedation in pediatric patients, but adverse side effects include hypotension, respiratory depression and hypertriglyceridemia.[2] An alternative option is dexmedetomidine, a highly selective α-2 adrenoceptor agonist that provides sedation, analgesia, and anxiolytic effects. It has been used in pediatric patients for premedication,[3] intraoperative administration,[4567] computed tomography (CT) scanning,[89] magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),[1011] mechanical ventilation,[1213] and other procedures.[141516] Unlike other sedatives, dexmedetomidine has been shown to induce sedation similar to natural sleep, without significant respiratory depression.[1718] "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Sedation of pediatric patients undergoing cerebral angiography is challenging. Although dexmedetomidine is used for sedation in various procedures, it has not been reported for pediatric patients undergoing cerebral angiography. This study compared the safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine with that of propofol for cerebral angiography in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods: Sixty-two patients (6-15 years) scheduled for elective cerebral angiography were apportioned randomly and equally to receive either propofol or dexmedetomidine sedation. Patients in the propofol group received an initial bolus of intravenous propofol (1 mg/kg) and a maintenance infusion of 100 μg/kg/min. Patients in the dexmedetomidine group received an initial bolus of intravenous dexmedetomidine (1 μg/kg over 10 min) and a maintenance infusion of 1 μg/kg/h. An additional bolus of propofol 0.5 mg/kg or dexmedetomidine 0.25 μg/kg was repeated if needed. Procedure time, time to recovery and adverse events associated with sedation were recorded. Results: All cerebral angiographies were completed successfully under sedation with dexmedetomidine or propofol. Mean cerebral angiography time was 36 ± 10 min in the propofol group and 31 ± 7 min in the dexmedetomidine group (P = 0.047). The percentage of airway events and total adverse events were significantly higher in the propofol group (P < 0.05). Heart rate decreased in the dexmedetomidine group and mean arterial pressure decreased in the propofol group (P < 0.05, each). Conclusion: Although cerebral angiography can be performed successfully under sedation with either propofol or dexmedetomidine, dexmedetomidine may be a better alternative because of fewer respiratory adverse events.
    Journal of research in medical sciences 06/2014; 19(6):549-54. · 0.65 Impact Factor
    • "It is often difficult to distinguish between pain and EA, because pain itself can be the source of agitation.[17] Patel et al.,[6] found a positive correlation between agitation and pain. Our study showed group SS needed more rescue tramadol and had higher EA scores than did group DK. "
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    ABSTRACT: Children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are particularly at risk under anesthesia after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP). This prospective randomized double-blind study focused on the comparison of dexmedetomidine-ketamine and sevoflurane-sufentanil anesthesia on children with respect to safety, feasibility, and clinical effects. A total of 60 children, aged 2-10 years, classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status I and II scheduled for UPPP were prospectively studied. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either dexmedetomidine-ketamine-based anesthesia (group DK, n = 30) or sevoflurane-sufentanil-based anesthesia (group SS, n = 3 0). Heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure during the first 60 min of the procedure, Ramsay sedation score, the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) scale and a 5-point scale used to evaluate emergence agitation (EA) in postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and postoperative outcomes data were recorded. During the first 60 min of anesthesia, mean HR, and mean diastolic noninvasive arterial blood pressure (NIBP) were not statistically different in the two groups (P > 0.05) Compared with group SS, the patients in group DK had lower rescue tramadol requirement and lower pain score, PAED score, and EA score at 5, 10, 15, and 30 min in PACU; but had a higher Ramsay scale at 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min in PACU and the incidence of SpO2 below 95%, also the time of first bowel movement and ambulation in group DK was shorter. The dexmedetomidine-ketamine combination was not superior to a sevoflurane-sufentanil combination because of late awake time and a high potential for adverse respiratory events in PACU, the benefit of dexmedetomidine administration being a decreased incidence of EA and a lower recovery time of bowel movement and ambulation.
    Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology 03/2014; 30(1):31-5. DOI:10.4103/0970-9185.125699
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    • "Deutsch and Tobias40 reported that an intravenous administration of 0.5 µg/kg of dexmedetomidine over 5 minutes caused an approximate 10% and 25% reduction in blood pressure and HR, respectively, in paediatric patients undergoing general anaesthesia. In addition, Patel, et al.22 reported that mean HR and mean systolic blood pressure were significantly reduced after administration of 0.7 µg/kg/h dexmedetomidine following a 2 µg/kg loading dose. We were concerned about the haemodynamic effects of dexmedetomidine, thus we reduced the infusion dose to almost one third of the recommended dose and without an initial loading dose. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Emergence agitation (EA) is frequently observed in children undergoing general anaesthesia. This study tested whether the addition of an intra-operative low-dose infusion of dexmedetomidine to fentanyl treatment reduced the incidence of emergence delirium following desflurane anesthesia in children undergoing strabismus surgery. Materials and Methods A total of 96 children (1-5 years old) undergoing strabismus surgery were enrolled. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with desflurane. After induction, fentanyl (1 µg/kg) was administered to all children. During surgery, patients were infused with 0.2 µg/(kg·h)-1 dexmedetomidine (Group FD, n=47) or normal saline (Group F, n=47). Postoperative objective pain score (OPS), Paediatric Agitation and Emergence Delirium (PAED) score, and EA score were documented every 10 minutes in the post-anaesthesia care unit. Results There were no significant differences between the two groups in demographic characteristics and haemodynamic changes. The mean values of maximum EA, maximum PAED, and maximum OPS score were significantly lower in Group FD than in Group F at 0, 10, and 20 minutes after arrival at the post-anaesthesia care unit (p<0.001). The frequency of fentanyl rescue was lower in Group FD than in Group F (p<0.001). The incidence of severe EA was significantly lower in Group FD than in Group F (12.8% vs. 74.5%, p<0.001). Conclusion Intra-operative low-dose infusion of dexmedetomidine in addition to fentanyl reduces EA following desflurane anaesthesia in children undergoing strabismus surgeries.
    Yonsei medical journal 03/2014; 55(2):508-16. DOI:10.3349/ymj.2014.55.2.508 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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