Neopentylglycolborylation of ortho-substituted aryl halides catalyzed by NiCl(2)-based mixed-ligand systems.
ABSTRACT NiCl(2)-based mixed-ligand systems were shown to be very effective catalysts for the neopentylglycolborylation of aryl iodides, bromides, and chlorides bearing electron-rich and electron-deficient ortho-substituents. Although NiCl(2)-based single-ligand catalytic systems were able to mediate neopentylglycolborylation of selected substrates, they were not as effective for all substrates, highlighting the value of the mixed-ligand concept. Optimization of the Ni(II)-catalyzed neopentylglycolborylation of 2-iodoanisole and methyl 2-iodobenzoate demonstrated that, while the role of ligand and coligand in the conversion of Ni(II) precatalyst to Ni(0) active catalyst cannot be ignored, a mixed-ligand complex is likely present throughout the catalytic cycle. In addition, protodeborylation and hydrodehalogenation were demonstrated to be the predominant side reactions of Ni(II)-catalyzed borylation of ortho-substituted aryl halides containing the electron-deficient carboxylate substituents. Ni(II) complexes in the presence of H(2)O and Ni(0) are responsible for the catalysis of these side reactions.