Hemorrhagic pituitary macroadenoma: characteristics, endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery, and outcomes.
ABSTRACT This study aims to assess the effect of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETSS) of hemorrhagic pituitary macroadenoma (HPMA).
We retrospectively reviewed 52 cases with HPMA collected from the Xijing Hospital from April 1995 to April 2009. There were 39 males and 13 females, ranging in age from 18 to 79 years (average 51.6 years). Patients presented with headache or acute ophthalmological symptoms after adenoma hemorrhage. Computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed pituitary macroadenoma with hemorrhage in all cases. Twenty-eight adenomas showed marked suprasellar extension, 19 showed moderate extension, and another 5 showed slight extension. All patients were promptly treated by emergency EETSS, usually within 24 h after hospitalization.
Total removal of tumor was achieved in 46 cases (88.5%), and subtotal removal in 6 cases (11.5%). Postoperative radiotherapy and reoperation of the tumor were required in five patients with either residual or relapsed tumors. Follow-up ranged from 8 to 93 months (mean 41.6 months) for 43 cases. Visual acuity and visual field recovery and improvement was recorded in 92.1% and 94.3% of patients who had preoperative visual symptoms, respectively.
The majority of macroadenomas are hemorrhagic, and they often occur in middle-aged, male subjects. Detection by imaging in the setting of pituitary apoplexy accurately predicts the nature of the apoplectic process and helps to guide the type and timing of surgery. Early EETSS is the most effective therapy and significantly improves visual outcomes and systemic conditions.
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ABSTRACT: Giant prolactinoma are rare tumours, representing only 2-3 % of all prolactin-secreting tumours and raising special diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Based on several considerations developed in this review, their definition should be restricted to pituitary adenomas with a diameter of 40 mm or more, significant extrasellar extension, very high prolactin concentrations (usually above 1000 µg/L), and no concomitant GH or ACTH secretion. Giant prolactinomas are much more frequent in young to middle-aged men than in women with a male to female ratio of about 9:1. Endocrine symptoms are often present but overlooked for a long period of time and diagnosis is eventually made when neurological complications arise from massive extension into the surrounding structures, leading to cranial nerve palsies, hydrocephalus, temporal epilepsy or exophthalmos. Prolactin concentrations are usually in the range of 1,000 to 100,000 µg/L, but may be underestimated by the so-called 'high dose hook effect'. As in every prolactinoma, dopamine agonists are the first-line treatment allowing rapid alleviation of neurologic symptoms in the majority of the cases, a significant reduction of tumour size in ¾ of the patients and PRL normalization in 60-70%. These extensive tumours are usually not completely resectable and neurosurgery has significant morbidity and mortality. It should therefore be restricted to acute complications such as apoplexy or leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (often induced by medical treatment), or to patients with insufficient tumoral response or progression. Irradiation and temozolomide are useful adjuvant therapies in a subset of patients with aggressive/invasive tumours which are not controlled despite combined medical and surgical treatments. Because of these various challenges, we advocate a multidisciplinary management of these giant tumours in expert centres.European Journal of Endocrinology 02/2014; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The clinical features of pituitary hemorrhage vary from asymptomatic to catastrophic. We aimed to evaluate the frequency, symptoms, outcome and risk factors of clinical and subclinical pituitary apoplexy (PA) patients. In a retrospective analysis, charts of 547 pituitary adenoma patients from 2000 to December 2011 were reviewed. The patients were classified as clinical or subclinical PA. We compared the results with a control group without PA. Anterior pituitary hormones for endocrine dysfunction, histology, Ki-67 labeling index (LI), and p53 positivity of the tumor and pituitary imaging by magnetic resonance imaging were evaluated. Thirty-two patients (5.8 %) were diagnosed as clinical and 81 patients (14.8 %) as subclinical PA. Among PA patients, 85 patients (75.2 %) had a macroadenoma, 8 patients (7.1 %) had a microadenoma. The most frequent symptoms at presentation in PA patients were visual loss and headache. The patients with macroadenoma had a significantly increased risk for PA (p < 0.05). Hormone inactive tumors were significantly associated with the development of clinical PA (p = 0.05). Dopamine agonist use was significantly higher in subclinical PA patients (p = 0.001). Sex, Ki-67 LI, p53 positivity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, somatostatin analogue and anticoagulant use did not predispose to PA whereas cavernous sinus invasion predisposed patients to PA (p < 0.01). The incidence of subclinical PA is higher than that of clinical PA. The development of PA is associated with macroadenomas. Clinically non-functioning tumors predispose to clinical PA. Cavernous sinus invasion of the tumor may be a sign of increased risk of bleeding.Pituitary 11/2012; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pituitary apoplexy is an uncommon clinical emergency arising from hemorrhage into or infarction of a pituitary adenoma. The most common presentation is sudden headache, visual field defects and signs of hypopituitarism. It usually occurs in the age group from 20 to 50 years and affects more male than female. Sudden death due to pituitary apoplexy without common symptoms is rarely reported. Here, we described a scarcely-reported case of sudden death in custody caused by pituitary apoplexy resulting from stress-induced hemorrhage of gonadotroph adenoma, a kind of pituitary adenoma, without common clinical symptoms. In this case, a 49-year-old man was restrained in a sitting position for 4 days and died unexpectedly. At autopsy, external examination showed free of trauma. Destruction of bony structure and a circumscribed pituitary tumor were observed in sella turcica. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were particular positive for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), thus clarifying the presence of a pituitary gonadotroph adenoma. We provide the case description and a short review of pituitary apoplexy and pituitary adenoma as a rare cause of sudden death.Journal of forensic and legal medicine 10/2013; 20(7):812-815.