Hemorrhagic Pituitary Macroadenoma: Characteristics, Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Surgery, and Outcomes
ABSTRACT This study aims to assess the effect of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETSS) of hemorrhagic pituitary macroadenoma (HPMA).
We retrospectively reviewed 52 cases with HPMA collected from the Xijing Hospital from April 1995 to April 2009. There were 39 males and 13 females, ranging in age from 18 to 79 years (average 51.6 years). Patients presented with headache or acute ophthalmological symptoms after adenoma hemorrhage. Computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed pituitary macroadenoma with hemorrhage in all cases. Twenty-eight adenomas showed marked suprasellar extension, 19 showed moderate extension, and another 5 showed slight extension. All patients were promptly treated by emergency EETSS, usually within 24 h after hospitalization.
Total removal of tumor was achieved in 46 cases (88.5%), and subtotal removal in 6 cases (11.5%). Postoperative radiotherapy and reoperation of the tumor were required in five patients with either residual or relapsed tumors. Follow-up ranged from 8 to 93 months (mean 41.6 months) for 43 cases. Visual acuity and visual field recovery and improvement was recorded in 92.1% and 94.3% of patients who had preoperative visual symptoms, respectively.
The majority of macroadenomas are hemorrhagic, and they often occur in middle-aged, male subjects. Detection by imaging in the setting of pituitary apoplexy accurately predicts the nature of the apoplectic process and helps to guide the type and timing of surgery. Early EETSS is the most effective therapy and significantly improves visual outcomes and systemic conditions.
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ABSTRACT: Primary intracranial melanocytomas are rare neoplasms, especially in the sellar region. Intracranial melanocytoma is usually a dural-based tumor, fed by dural arterial branches in a manner similar to meningioma. Primary sellar melanocytoma may be misdiagnosed as hemorrhagic pituitary macroadenoma, spindle cell oncocytoma, and intrasellar meningioma. These tumors differ in some radiological respects, but are difficult to differentiate preoperatively. Only five cases of primary sellar/suprasellar melanocytic tumors, excluding melanomas have been reported thus far. In this paper, we report an instructive new case of a 31-year-old woman presenting with a 2-year history of amenorrhea and an intrasellar mass with suprasellar extension, suggestive of hemorrhagic pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgical excision was difficult due to extensive bleeding from the lesion, and at the time, the tumor could not be diagnosed histopathologically. Six years later, we operated again because of tumor regrowth. Angiography revealed a hypervascular tumor, which was fed from the dorsal sellar floor. We had difficulty resecting the tumor, but achieved total removal. Our case had typical radiographic characteristics of melanocytoma, revealed by both magnetic resonance imaging and angiography. However, it was difficult to reach a final diagnosis. Further histopathological examination, including immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies, was helpful for diagnosis of melanocytoma. Primary sellar melanocytic tumors are derived from melanocytes in the meningeal lining of the sellar floor or in the diaphragm sellae, based on both embryological assumptions and the clinical findings of our case. We discuss the problems of differential diagnosis and management of primary sellar melanocytic tumors.Pituitary 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11102-015-0635-8 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Precision radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of brain tumors. This study aimed to identify global research trends in precision radiotherapy for brain tumors using a bibliometric analysis of the Web of Science. We performed a bibliometric analysis of data retrievals for precision radiotherapy for brain tumors containing the key words cerebral tumor, brain tumor, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy, imaging-guided radiotherapy, dose-guided radiotherapy, stereotactic brachytherapy, and stereotactic radiotherapy using the Web of Science. (a) peer-reviewed articles on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors which were published and indexed in the Web of Science; (b) type of articles: original research articles and reviews; (c) year of publication: 2002-2011. (a) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; (b) Corrected papers or book chapters. (1) Annual publication output; (2) distribution according to country; (3) distribution according to institution; (4) top cited publications; (5) distribution according to journals; and (6) comparison of study results on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors. The stereotactic radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and imaging-guided radiotherapy are three major methods of precision radiotherapy for brain tumors. There were 260 research articles addressing precision radiotherapy for brain tumors found within the Web of Science. The USA published the most papers on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors, followed by Germany and France. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, German Cancer Research Center and Heidelberg University were the most prolific research institutes for publications on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors. Among the top 13 research institutes publishing in this field, seven are in the USA, three are in Germany, two are in France, and there is one institute in India. Research interests including urology and nephrology, clinical neurology, as well as rehabilitation are involved in precision radiotherapy for brain tumors studies. Precision radiotherapy for brain tumors remains a highly active area of research and development.Neural Regeneration Research 08/2012; 7(22):1752-9. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2012.22.011 · 0.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pituitary apoplexy is an infrequent occurrence that can require timely treatment. The term "pituitary apoplexy" as used in the literature describes a heterogeneous spectrum. There is controversy about which subsets require urgent as opposed to elective surgical treatment or even medical treatment alone. We present a retrospective series of 109 consecutive cases of pituitary apoplexy from a single institution from 1992-2012 and develop a comprehensive classification system to analyze outcome. METHODS: Surgical and endocrine consult databases were reviewed to analyze patterns of presentation, imaging, treatment, and outcomes. RESULTS: Most of the patients in this series presented clinically with "classic" pituitary apoplexy (97%), had magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation (99%), underwent transsphenoidal surgery as their primary treatment (93%), and were found to have pituitary adenomas on histopathology (90%). We categorized patients into 5 grades based on clinical presentation. Tumor volume, cavernous sinus involvement, suprasellar extension, and need for ongoing endocrine replacement correlated with grade. Long-term endocrine replacement at follow-up was required in 62%-68% of patients with a higher grade compared with 0-23% of patients with a lower grade. Higher grade patients tended to undergo earlier surgery after symptom onset. Symptoms resolved or improved with treatment in 92%-100% of patients across all grades with good general outcomes for visual deficits and ocular motility problems, validating management decisions overall. CONCLUSIONS: We offer a simple yet comprehensive grading system to classify the clinical spectrum of pituitary apoplexy, which has implications for management, outcomes, and categorization for future studies.World Neurosurgery 06/2014; 82(5). DOI:10.1016/j.wneu.2014.06.005 · 2.42 Impact Factor