The role of diet and lifestyle in primary, secondary, and tertiary diabetes prevention: a review of meta-analyses.
ABSTRACT Prevention of diabetes is crucial to lowering disease incidence, and thus minimizing the individual, familial, and public health burden. The purpose of this review is to gather current information from meta-analyses on dietary and lifestyle practices concerning reduction of risk to develop type 2 diabetes. Low glycemic index dietary patterns reduce both fasting blood glucose and glycated proteins independent of carbohydrate consumption. Diets rich in whole-grain, cereal high fiber products, and non-oil-seed pulses are beneficial. Whereas, frequent meat consumption has been shown to increase risk. Regarding non-alcoholic beverages, 4 cups/day of filtered coffee or tea are associated with a reduced diabetes risk. In contrast, the consumption of alcoholic beverages should not exceed 1-3 drinks/day. Intake of vitamin E, carotenoids, and magnesium can be increased to counteract diabetes risk. Obesity is the most important factor accounting for more than half of new diabetes' cases; even modest weight loss has a favorable effect in preventing the appearance of diabetes. Also, physical exercise with or without diet contributes to a healthier lifestyle, and is important for lowering risk. Finally, there is a positive association between smoking and risk to develop type 2 diabetes. As far as secondary and tertiary prevention is concerned, for persons already diagnosed with diabetes, there is limited evidence of the effectiveness of diet or lifestyle modification on glycemic control, but further studies are necessary.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Theodora Psaltopoulou, May 29, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Carotenoids may reduce diabetes risk, due to their antioxidant properties. However, the association between dietary carotenoids intake and type 2 diabetes risk is still unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine whether higher dietary carotenoid intakes associate with reduced type 2 diabetes risk. Data from 37,846 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition- Netherlands study were analyzed. Dietary intakes of β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein & zeaxanthin and the sum of these carotenoids were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Incident type 2 diabetes was mainly self-reported, and verified against general practitioner information. Mean ±SD total carotenoid intake was 10 ± 4 mg/day. During a mean ±SD follow-up of 10 ± 2years, 915 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were ascertained. After adjustment for age, sex, diabetes risk factors, dietary intake, waist circumference and BMI, higher β-carotene intakes associated inversely with diabetes risk [Hazard Ratio quartile 4 versus quartile 1 (HRQ4): 0.78 (95%CI:0.64,0.95), P-linear trend 0.01]. For α-carotene, a borderline significant reduced risk was observed, with a HRQ4 of 0.85 (95%CI:0.70,1.03), and P-linear trend 0.05. β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein & zeaxanthin, and the sum of all carotenoids did not associate with diabetes risk. This study shows that diets high in β-carotene and α-carotene are associated with reduced type 2 diabetes in generally healthy men and women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 12/2014; 25(4). DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2014.12.008 · 3.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Little is known about how to improve and create sustainable lifestyle behaviors of cancer survivors. Interventions based on social cognitive theory (SCT) have shown promise. This review examined the effect of SCT-based physical activity and nutrition interventions that target cancer survivors and identified factors associated with their efficacy. A systematic search of seven databases identified randomized controlled trials that (i) targeted adult cancer survivors (any point from diagnosis); (ii) reported a primary outcome of physical activity, diet, or weight management; and (iii) included an SCT-based intervention targeting physical activity or diet. Qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis were conducted. Theoretical constructs and intervention characteristics were examined to identify factors associated with intervention efficacy. Eighteen studies (reported in 33 publications) met review inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis (n = 12) revealed a significant intervention effect for physical activity (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.33; P < 0.01). Most studies (six out of eight) that targeted dietary change reported significant improvements in at least one aspect of diet quality. No SCT constructs were associated with intervention effects. There were no consistent trends relating to intervention delivery method or whether the intervention targeted single or multiple behaviors. SCT-based interventions demonstrate promise in improving physical activity and diet behavior in cancer survivors, using a range of intervention delivery modes. Further work is required to understand how and why these interventions offer promise for improving behavior. SCT-based interventions targeting diet or physical activity are safe and result in meaningful changes to diet and physical activity behavior that can result in health improvements.Journal of Cancer Survivorship 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11764-014-0413-z · 3.29 Impact Factor