Anti-amnestic properties of Brahmi and Mandookaparni in a rat model
ABSTRACT We had previously demonstrated that a complex herbal formulation (Mentat; Himalaya Drug Company, Bangalore) attenuated anterograde and retrograde amnesia induced by electroconvulsive shocks (ECS) in rats. We later showed that a simplified formulation (Memorin; Phyto Pharma, Kolhapur) had similar effects.
In an attempt to identify the ingredients (of the complex formulation), which purveyed the cognitive benefits, we studied two of the constituent herbs, Brahmi and Mandookaparni, separately and together. The experiments included both active (piracetam) and inactive (vehicle) controls.
Adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8 per group) were randomized to receive Brahmi, Mandookaparni, a combination of these two herbs (A300), piracetam, or vehicle from days 1 to 15. On days 11 and 12, the rats were trained in a T-maze using a food-driven paradigm. On days 13 and 14, half the rats in each group received 2 ECS (60 mC charge) per day, 5 hours apart. On day 15, recall of pre-ECS learning was assessed. On day 16, transfer of learning was assessed.
None of the active treatments facilitated pre-ECS learning or influenced ECS seizure duration; however, all showed varying but generally favourable profiles in the attenuation of ECS-induced retrograde and anterograde amnesia. The combination of Brahmi and Mandookaparni showed no especial advantage over the individual herbs.
Brahmi and Mandookparni do not in themselves improve learning; however, each attenuates the amnestic effects of ECS without showing synergism in this beneficial action. Exercises in research and development are indicated to further investigate the anti-amnestic properties of these herbs, and to identify the specific chemical constituents which have procognitive effects.
- SourceAvailable from: Con K K Stough
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- "( Andrade and Chandra, 2006a "
ABSTRACT: Little research exists in humans concerning the anxiolytic, antidepressant, sedative, and adaptogenic actions the traditional Ayurvedic medicine Bacopa monnieri (BM) possesses in addition to its documented cognitive-enhancing effects. Preclinical work has identified a number of acute anxiolytic, nootropic, and adaptogenic effects of BM that may also co-occur in humans. The current double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study assessed the acute effects of a specific extract of BM (KeenMind® - CDRI 08) in normal healthy participants during completion of a multitasking framework (MTF). Seventeen healthy volunteers completed the MTF, at baseline, then 1 h and 2 h after consuming a placebo, 320 mg BM and 640 mg of BM. Treatments were separated by a 7-day washout with order determined by Latin Square. Outcome measures included cognitive outcomes from the MTF, with mood and salivary cortisol measured before and after each completion of the MTF. Change from baseline scores indicated positive cognitive effects, notably at both 1 h post and 2 h post BM consumption on the Letter Search and Stroop tasks, suggesting an earlier nootropic effect of BM than previously investigated. There were also some positive mood effects and reduction in cortisol levels, pointing to a physiological mechanism for stress reduction associated with BM consumption. It was concluded that acute BM supplementation produced some adaptogenic and nootropic effects that need to be replicated in a larger sample and in isolation from stressful cognitive tests in order to quantify the magnitude of these effects. The study was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12612000834853). Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Phytotherapy Research 04/2014; 28(4). DOI:10.1002/ptr.5029 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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- "The lack of biological sampling in these human studies prohibits speculation upon the biological mechanism of these nootropic effects in humans. Evidence from animal studies suggests that BM may acutely improve cognition when an animal is stressed or cognitively challenged (Andrade and Chandra 2006a; Saraf et al. 2008). "
ABSTRACT: Standardized extracts of the traditional Ayurvedic medicine Bacopa monnieri (BM) (Brahmi) have been recently shown to have cognitive enhancing effects in chronic administration studies. Pre-clinical work has also identified a number of acute anxiolytic, nootropic, and cardiovascular effects of BM. There has, however, been little research on the acute effects of BM on cognitive function. The current study aimed to assess the acute effects of a specific extract of BM (KeenMind® - CDRI 08) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in normal healthy participants who completed a cognitively demanding series of tests. Twenty-four healthy volunteers completed six repetitions of the Cognitive Demand Battery (CDB) after consuming a placebo, 320 mg BM or 640 mg of BM in a cross-over design and provided cardiovascular and mood assessments before and after treatment. Change from baseline scores indicated that the 320 mg dose of BM improved performance at the first, second, and fourth repetition post-dosing on the CDB, and the treatments had no effect upon cardiovascular activity or in attenuating task-induced ratings of stress and fatigue. It was concluded that assessment of an earlier pharmacological window and use of less memory-specific cognitive tests together with more temporally sensitive measures of brain activity may improve our understanding of the acute neurocognitive properties of BM. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Phytotherapy Research 09/2013; 27(9). DOI:10.1002/ptr.4864 · 2.66 Impact Factor
- Indian Journal of Psychiatry 10/2008; 50(4):244-52. DOI:10.4103/0019-5545.44745