Analysis of genomic breakpoints in p190 and p210 BCR-ABL indicate distinct mechanisms of formation.
ABSTRACT We sought to understand the genesis of the t(9;22) by characterizing genomic breakpoints in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and BCR-ABL-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). BCR-ABL breakpoints were identified in p190 ALL (n=25), p210 ALL (n=25) and p210 CML (n=32); reciprocal breakpoints were identified in 54 cases. No evidence for significant clustering and no association with sequence motifs was found except for a breakpoint deficit in repeat regions within BCR for p210 cases. Comparison of reciprocal breakpoints, however, showed differences in the patterns of deletion/insertions between p190 and p210. To explore the possibility that recombinase-activating gene (RAG) activity might be involved in ALL, we performed extra-chromosomal recombination assays for cases with breakpoints close to potential cryptic recombination signal sequence (cRSS) sites. Of 13 ALL cases tested, 1/10 with p190 and 1/3 with p210 precisely recapitulated the forward BCR-ABL breakpoint and 1/10 with p190 precisely recapitulated the reciprocal breakpoint. In contrast, neither of the p210 CMLs tested showed functional cRSSs. Thus, although the t(9;22) does not arise from aberrant variable (V), joining (J) and diversity (D) (V(D)J) recombination, our data suggest that in a subset of ALL cases RAG might create one of the initiating double-strand breaks.
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ABSTRACT: Philadelphia chromosome (Ph1)-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients consistently show a rearrangement in a 5.8-kilobase length of chromosome 22, referred to as the breakpoint cluster region (bcr). In Ph1-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the breakpoint in chromosome 22 is more heterogeneous and, in some instances, does not occur within this region. In such cases the cell of origin of the neoplastic clone and the relationship of the disease to CML has remained obscure. We have analyzed the bcr rearrangement in the malignant cells from three patients who presented with Ph1-positive ALL and who in cytogenetic studies had shown evidence of variable involvement of myeloid cells in the Ph1-positive clone. Rearrangements in bcr typical of most cases of CML were detected in purified granulocyte preparations from two of the ALL patients (nos. 1 and 2) and in the blasts from patient 3 at the time of her terminal relapse. In the same analysis the simultaneously obtained granulocytes from patient 3, however, did not show any evidence of bcr rearrangement. Patient 3 was also heterozygous for the BamHI polymorphism in the X-linked hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene, thus permitting a different method of clonal analysis based on methylation differences in active and inactive alleles. When DNA from her granulocytes that had shown no bcr rearrangement was hybridized to an HPRT probe, a pattern typical of a polyclonal population was seen. A similar pattern was exhibited by her marrow fibroblasts. In marked contrast, her simultaneously isolated blasts showed an unambiguous monoclonal pattern. These findings demonstrate the origin of the disease in the first two patients in a cell with myelopoietic as well as lymphopoietic potential and confirm the restricted lymphoid cell origin of the neoplastic clone in the third Ph1-positive ALL patient. Furthermore, they indicate that different target cells for transformation within the hematopoietic system may be affected by very similar bcr rearrangements.Blood 06/1988; 71(5):1495-8. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The t(1;19) translocation yields a fusion between E2A and PBX1 genes and occurs in 5% of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children and adults. We used chromosomal translocations and Ig heavy chain (IGH)/T cell antigen receptor (TCR) rearrangements to develop an understanding of the etiology and natural history of this subtype of leukemia. We sequenced the genomic fusion between E2A and PBX1 in 22 preB acute lymphoblastic leukemias and two cell lines. The prenatal origin of the leukemia was assessed in 15 pediatric patients by screening for the clonotypic E2A-PBX1 translocation in neonatal blood spots, or Guthrie cards, obtained from the children at the time of birth. Two patients were determined to be weakly positive for the fusion at the time of birth, in contrast to previously studied childhood leukemia fusions, t(12;21), t(8;21), and t(4;11), which were predominantly prenatal. The presence of extensive N-nucleotides at the point of fusion in the E2A-PBX1 translocation as well as specific characteristics of the IGH/TCR rearrangements provided additional evidence for a postnatal, preB cell origin. Intriguingly, 16 of 24 breakpoints on the 3.2-kb E2A intron 14 were located within 5 bp, providing evidence for a site-specific recombination mechanism. Breakpoints on the 232-kb PBX1 intron 1 were more dispersed but highly clustered proximal to exon 2. In sum, the translocation breakpoints displayed evidence of unique temporal, ontological, and mechanistic formation than the previously analyzed pediatric leukemia translocation breakpoints and emphasize the need to differentiate cytogenetic and molecular subgroups for studies of leukemia causality.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2002; 99(23):15101-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A distinct population of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) is strongly associated with prior administration of topoisomerase II (topo II) inhibitors. These t-AMLs display distinct cytogenetic alterations, most often disrupting the MLL gene on chromosome 11q23 within a breakpoint cluster region (bcr) of 8.3 kb. We recently identified a unique site within the MLL bcr that is highly susceptible to DNA double-strand cleavage by classic topo II inhibitors (e.g., etoposide and doxorubicin). Here, we report that site-specific cleavage within the MLL bcr can be induced by either catalytic topo II inhibitors, genotoxic chemotherapeutic agents which do not target topo II, or nongenotoxic stimuli of apoptotic cell death, suggesting that this site-specific cleavage is part of a generalized cellular response to an apoptotic stimulus. We also show that site-specific cleavage within the MLL bcr can be linked to the higher-order chromatin fragmentation that occurs during the initial stages of apoptosis, possibly through cleavage of DNA loops at their anchorage sites to the nuclear matrix. In addition, we show that site-specific cleavage is conserved between species, as specific DNA cleavage can also be demonstrated within the murine MLL locus. Lastly, site-specific cleavage during apoptosis can also be identified at the AML1 locus, a locus which is also frequently involved in chromosomal rearrangements present in t-AML patients. In conclusion, these results suggest the potential involvement of higher-order chromatin fragmentation which occurs as a part of a generalized apoptotic response in a mechanism leading to chromosomal translocation of the MLL and AML1 genes and subsequent t-AML.Molecular and Cellular Biology 08/1997; 17(7):4070-9. · 5.37 Impact Factor