Acute and chronic effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on blood pressure and the physiological responses to moderate-intensity and incremental exercise
ABSTRACT Dietary nitrate (NO(3)(-)) supplementation with beetroot juice (BR) over 4-6 days has been shown to reduce the O(2) cost of submaximal exercise and to improve exercise tolerance. However, it is not known whether shorter (or longer) periods of supplementation have similar (or greater) effects. We therefore investigated the effects of acute and chronic NO(3)(-) supplementation on resting blood pressure (BP) and the physiological responses to moderate-intensity exercise and ramp incremental cycle exercise in eight healthy subjects. Following baseline tests, the subjects were assigned in a balanced crossover design to receive BR (0.5 l/day; 5.2 mmol of NO(3)(-)/day) and placebo (PL; 0.5 l/day low-calorie juice cordial) treatments. The exercise protocol (two moderate-intensity step tests followed by a ramp test) was repeated 2.5 h following first ingestion (0.5 liter) and after 5 and 15 days of BR and PL. Plasma nitrite concentration (baseline: 454 ± 81 nM) was significantly elevated (+39% at 2.5 h postingestion; +25% at 5 days; +46% at 15 days; P < 0.05) and systolic and diastolic BP (baseline: 127 ± 6 and 72 ± 5 mmHg, respectively) were reduced by ∼4% throughout the BR supplementation period (P < 0.05). Compared with PL, the steady-state Vo(2) during moderate exercise was reduced by ∼4% after 2.5 h and remained similarly reduced after 5 and 15 days of BR (P < 0.05). The ramp test peak power and the work rate at the gas exchange threshold (baseline: 322 ± 67 W and 89 ± 15 W, respectively) were elevated after 15 days of BR (331 ± 68 W and 105 ± 28 W; P < 0.05) but not PL (323 ± 68 W and 84 ± 18 W). These results indicate that dietary NO(3)(-) supplementation acutely reduces BP and the O(2) cost of submaximal exercise and that these effects are maintained for at least 15 days if supplementation is continued.
SourceAvailable from: Jordan R Moon[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Creatine monohydrate has become a very popular nutritional supplement for its ergogenic effects. The safety of creatine monohydrate has previously been confirmed. However with each novel form of creatine that emerges, its safety must be verified. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the safety of a novel form of creatine, creatine nitrate (CN), over a 28 day period. 58 young males and females (Pooled: 24.3 ± 3.9 years, 144.9 ± 8.0 cm, 74.2 ± 13.0 kg) participated in this study across two laboratories. Subjects were equally and randomly assigned to consume either 1 g (n = 18) or 2 g (n = 20) of CN or remained unsupplemented (n = 20). Blood draws for full safety panels were conducted by a trained phlebotomist prior to and at the conclusion of the supplementation period. Pooled data from both laboratories revealed significant group x time interactions for absolute lymphocytes and absolute monocytes (p < 0.05). Analysis of the 1 g treatment revealed lab x time differences for red blood cell distribution width, platelets, absolute monocytes, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN):creatinine, sodium, protein, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p < 0.05). Analysis of the 2 g treatment revealed lab x time differences for BUN:creatinine and ALT (p < 0.05). BUN and BUN:creatinine increased beyond the clinical reference range for the 2 g treatment of Lab 2, but BUN did not reach statistical significance. Overall, CN appears to be safe in both 1 g and 2 g servings daily for up to a 28 day period. While those with previously elevated BUN levels may see additional increases resulting in post-supplementation values slightly beyond normal physiological range, these results have minor clinical significance and are not cause for concern. Otherwise, all hematological safety markers remained within normal range, suggesting that CN supplementation has no adverse effects in daily doses up to 2 g over 28 days and may be an alternative to creatine monohydrate supplementation.Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 12/2014; 11(1):60. DOI:10.1186/s12970-014-0060-9 · 1.50 Impact Factor
Article: Nitrate Ingestion[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: INCREASING BLOOD FLOW TO WORKING MUSCLES, THROUGH INCREASED VASODILATATION, HAS THE POTENTIAL TO INCREASE WORK CAPACITY DURING BOTH AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCES AND POSSIBLY ENHANCE RECOVERY THROUGH INCREASED NUTRIENT DELIVERY. BECAUSE OF THESE POTENTIAL BENEFITS, L-ARGININE SUPPLEMENTS HAVE BECOME EXTREMELY POPULAR OVER THE PAST DECADE BASED ON THEIR POTENTIAL NITRIC OXIDE–STIMULATING ABILITY, ALTHOUGH THE RESEARCH DOES NOT APPEAR TO SUPPORT THE INGESTION OF L-ARGININE TO INCREASE VASODILATATION. IN CONTRAST, CONSUMPTION OF FOODS HIGH IN NITRATE CONCENTRATION, SUCH AS BEETROOT JUICE, HAS BEEN SHOWN TO INCREASE PLASMA NITRATES, PREFERENTIALLY ALTERING HEMODYNAMICS AND POSSIBLY ENHANCING ACUTE EXERCISE PERFORMANCE.Strength and conditioning journal 01/2012; 34(4):22-25. DOI:10.1519/SSC.0b013e31824eda1e · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in exercise intolerance. Dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to lower blood pressure (BP), reduce the oxygen cost of exercise, and enhance exercise tolerance in healthy volunteers. This study assessed the effects of dietary nitrate on the oxygen cost of cycling, walking performance and BP in individuals with mild-moderate COPD.Nitric Oxide 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.niox.2015.01.002 · 3.18 Impact Factor