Acute and chronic effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on blood pressure and the physiological responses to moderate-intensity and incremental exercise
ABSTRACT Dietary nitrate (NO(3)(-)) supplementation with beetroot juice (BR) over 4-6 days has been shown to reduce the O(2) cost of submaximal exercise and to improve exercise tolerance. However, it is not known whether shorter (or longer) periods of supplementation have similar (or greater) effects. We therefore investigated the effects of acute and chronic NO(3)(-) supplementation on resting blood pressure (BP) and the physiological responses to moderate-intensity exercise and ramp incremental cycle exercise in eight healthy subjects. Following baseline tests, the subjects were assigned in a balanced crossover design to receive BR (0.5 l/day; 5.2 mmol of NO(3)(-)/day) and placebo (PL; 0.5 l/day low-calorie juice cordial) treatments. The exercise protocol (two moderate-intensity step tests followed by a ramp test) was repeated 2.5 h following first ingestion (0.5 liter) and after 5 and 15 days of BR and PL. Plasma nitrite concentration (baseline: 454 ± 81 nM) was significantly elevated (+39% at 2.5 h postingestion; +25% at 5 days; +46% at 15 days; P < 0.05) and systolic and diastolic BP (baseline: 127 ± 6 and 72 ± 5 mmHg, respectively) were reduced by ∼4% throughout the BR supplementation period (P < 0.05). Compared with PL, the steady-state Vo(2) during moderate exercise was reduced by ∼4% after 2.5 h and remained similarly reduced after 5 and 15 days of BR (P < 0.05). The ramp test peak power and the work rate at the gas exchange threshold (baseline: 322 ± 67 W and 89 ± 15 W, respectively) were elevated after 15 days of BR (331 ± 68 W and 105 ± 28 W; P < 0.05) but not PL (323 ± 68 W and 84 ± 18 W). These results indicate that dietary NO(3)(-) supplementation acutely reduces BP and the O(2) cost of submaximal exercise and that these effects are maintained for at least 15 days if supplementation is continued.
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ABSTRACT: The tolerable work duration (t) for high-intensity cycling is well described as a hyperbolic function of power (W): W = (W'.t-1) + Wa, where Wa is the upper limit for sustainable power (lying between maximum W and the threshold for sustained blood [lactate] increase, theta lac), and W' is a constant which defines the amount of work which can be performed greater than Wa. As training increases the tolerable duration of high-intensity cycling, we explored whether this reflected an alteration of Wa, W' or both. Before and after a 7-week regimen of intense interval cycle-training by healthy males, we estimated ( ) theta lac and determined maximum O2 uptake (mu VO2); Wa; W'; and the temporal profiles of pulmonary gas exchange, blood gas, acid-base and metabolic response to constant-load cycling at and above Wa. Although training increased theta lac (24%), mu VO2 (15%) and Wa (15%), W' was unaffected. For exercise at Wa, a steady state was attained for VO2, [lactate] and pH both pre- and post-training, despite blood [norepinephrine] and [epinephrine] ([NE], [E]) and rectal temperature continuing to rise. For exercise greater than Wa, there was a progressive increase in VO2 (resulting in mu VO2 at fatigue), [lactate], [NE], [E] and rectal temperature, and a progressive decrease for pH. We conclude that the increased endurance capacity for high-intensity exercise following training reflects an increased W asymptote of the W-t relationship with no effect on its curvature; consequently, there is no appreciable change in the amount of work which can be performed above Wa.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 02/1990; 59(6):421-9. DOI:10.1007/BF02388623
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ABSTRACT: We tested the hypothesis that inorganic nitrate (NO3 (-)) supplementation would improve muscle oxygenation, pulmonary O2 uptake (VO2) kinetics and exercise tolerance (Tlim) to a greater extent when cycling at high compared low pedal rates. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, seven subjects (mean ± SD, age 21 ± 2 yr, body mass 86 ± 10 kg) completed severe-intensity step cycle tests at pedal cadences of 35 rpm and 115 rpm during separate 9 day supplementation periods with NO3 (-)-rich beetroot juice (BR; providing 8.4 mmol NO3 (-)∙day(-1)) and placebo (PLA). Compared to PLA, plasma nitrite concentration increased 178% with BR (P<0.01). There were no significant differences in muscle oxyhemoglobin concentration ([O2Hb]), phase II VO2 kinetics or Tlim between BR and PLA when cycling at 35 rpm (P>0.05). However, when cycling at 115 rpm, muscle [O2Hb] was higher at baseline and throughout exercise, phase II VO2 kinetics was faster (47 ± 16 s vs. 61 ± 25 s; P<0.05) and Tlim was greater (362 ± 137 s vs. 297 ± 79 s; P<0.05) with BR compared to PLA. These results suggest that short-term BR supplementation can increase muscle oxygenation, expedite the adjustment of oxidative metabolism and enhance exercise tolerance when cycling at a high, but not a low, pedal cadence in healthy recreationally-active subjects. These findings support recent observations that NO3 (-) supplementation may be particularly effective at improving physiological and functional responses in type II muscle fibers. Copyright © 2014, Journal of Applied Physiology.Journal of Applied Physiology 04/2015; 118(11):jap.01141.2014. DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.01141.2014 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dietary acid load, quantified as the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of the diet, affects systemic pH and acid-base regulation. In a previous cross-sectional study, we reported that a low dietary PRAL (i.e. alkaline promoting diet) is associated with higher respiratory exchange ratio (RER) values during maximal exercise. The purpose of the present study was to confirm the previous findings with a short-term dietary intervention study. Additionally, we sought to determine if changes in PRAL affects submaximal exercise RER (as a reflection of substrate utilization) and anaerobic exercise performance. Subjects underwent a graded treadmill exercise test (GXT) to exhaustion and an anaerobic exercise performance test on two occasions, once after following a low-PRAL diet and on a separate occasion, after a high-PRAL diet. The diets were continued as long as needed to achieve an alkaline or acid fasted morning urine pH, respectively, with all being 4-9 days in duration. RER was measured during the GXT with indirect calorimetry. The anaerobic performance test was a running time-to-exhaustion test lasting 1-4 min. Maximal exercise RER was lower in the low-PRAL trial compared to the high-PRAL trial (1.10 ± 0.02 vs. 1.20 ± 0.05, p = 0.037). The low-PRAL diet also resulted in a 21% greater time to exhaustion during anaerobic exercise (2.56 ± 0.36 vs. 2.11 ± 0.31 sec, p = 0.044) and a strong tendency for lower RER values during submaximal exercise at 70% VO2max (0.88 ± 0.02 vs. 0.96 ± 0.04, p = 0.060). Contrary to our expectations, a short-term low-PRAL (alkaline promoting) diet resulted in lower RER values during maximal-intensity exercise. However, the low-PRAL diet also increased anaerobic exercise time to exhaustion and appears to have shifted submaximal exercise substrate utilization to favor lipid oxidation and spare carbohydrate, both of which would be considered favorable effects in the context of exercise performance. Key pointsShort-term (4-9 days) changes in the acid or alkaline promoting qualities of the diet, quantified as potential renal acid load (PRAL), alter systemic pH, as evidenced in the present study by changes in fasted morning urine pH. Low-PRAL (alkaline promoting) diets are characterized by high intakes of vegetables and fruits with limited consumption of meats, cheeses, and grains while high-PRAL diets are characterized by the opposite dietary pattern.An alkaline promoting (low-PRAL) diet increases anaerobic exercise performance, as evidenced by greater time-to-exhaustion during high-intensity treadmill running.Preliminary evidence suggests that an alkaline promoting (low-PRAL) diet increases lipid oxidation and may have a carbohydrate-sparing effect during submaximal endurance exercise, although further studies are needed.In contrast to what has been observed in response to habitual/long-term dietary patterns, a short-term low-PRAL diet does not increase maximal exercise respiratory exchange ratio and even appears to lower it. This suggests that short-term and long-term alterations in PRAL have different physiologic effects on this parameter.Journal of sports science & medicine 06/2015; 14(2):364-71. · 0.90 Impact Factor