Vitamin D Status of Inuit Preschoolers Reflects Season and Vitamin D Intake
ABSTRACT Rickets ascribed to hypovitaminosis D remains a public health concern among Aboriginal children in Canada and the United States. Our primary objective in this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors (gender, age, vitamin D intake, and socioeconomic status) for low vitamin D status of Inuit preschoolers living in 16 Arctic communities (51(o)N-70(o)N) and participating in the 2007-2008 Nunavut Child Inuit Health Survey. Children were selected randomly in summer (n = 282) and a follow-up was performed in winter for a subsample (n = 52). Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall and a FFQ. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight) were assessed. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D was measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin). Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (<75 nmol/L) among preschoolers was 78.6% and 96.8% in summer and winter, respectively. Median vitamin D concentrations and interquartile ranges in summer and winter were 48.3 (32.8-71.3) and 37.7 (21.4-52.0) nmol/L, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency < 25 and < 37.5 nmol/L was 13.6 and 36.5%, respectively. Children who met or exceeded the adequate intake, those who consumed 2 or more milk servings (1 serving = 250 mL), and those who lived in households without crowding (47.7%) had a better vitamin D status than those who did not. The predictors of vitamin D status were dietary intake and age. Given low traditional food consumption and low consumption of milk, interventions promoting vitamin D supplementation may be required.
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ABSTRACT: Background. Poor studies have evaluated 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) levels in Down syndrome (DS). Objective. To assess in DS subjects serum 25(OH)D value, to identify risk factors for vitamin D deficiency, and to evaluate whether a normal 25(OH)D value can be restored with a 400 I.U. daily supplement of cholecalciferol in respect to controls. Methods. We have longitudinally evaluated 31 DS patients (aged 4.5-18.9 years old) and 99 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In these subjects, we analysed calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25(OH)D concentrations, and calcium and 25(OH)D dietary intakes, and we quantified outdoor exposure. After 12.3 months (range 8.1-14.7 months) of 25(OH)D supplementation, we reevaluated these subjects. Results. DS subjects showed reduced 25(OH)D levels compared to controls (P < 0.0001), in particular DS subjects with obesity (P < 0.05) and autoimmune diseases history (P < 0.005). PTH levels were significantly higher in DS subjects than controls (P < 0.0001). After cholecalciferol supplementation, 25(OH)D levels were significantly ameliorated (P < 0.05), even if reduced compared to controls (P < 0.0001), in particular in DS subjects with obesity (P < 0.05) and autoimmune diseases (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Hypovitaminosis D is very frequent in DS subjects, in particular in presence of obesity and autoimmune diseases. In these subjects, there could be a need for higher cholecalciferol supplementation.International Journal of Endocrinology 01/2015; 2015:896758. DOI:10.1155/2015/896758 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective. This paper aims to assess 25(OH)D levels in Italian children and adolescents identifying risk factors for 25(OH)D deficiency and to evaluate whether a normal 25(OH)D value can be restored in 25(OH)D-deficient patients. Methods. We evaluated 25(OH)D levels in 679 Italian children and adolescents (≤10, 11-20, 21-30, and >30 ng/mL were defined as severe deficiency, deficiency, insufficiency, and sufficiency, resp.). Of these, 365 25(OH)D-deficient were followed up for 1 year; 205 were treated with cholecalciferol (Arm A: 400 I.U.) and 160 by improving the environmental variables influencing 25(OH)D levels (Arm B). Results. At cross-sectional evaluation, 11.3% showed sufficiency, 30.0% insufficiency, and 58.7% 25(OH)D deficiency. Mean 25(OH)D was 19.08 ± 8.44 ng/mL. At the enrollment time (T 0), no difference was found between Arms A and B with respect to distribution and 25(OH)D levels. At end time (T 1) 26.0% (29.7% in Arm A versus 20.6% in Arm B) showed sufficiency, 38.4% (42.0% versus 34.4%) insufficiency, and 35.6% (28.3% versus 45.0%) 25(OH)D deficiency. Mean 25(OH)D level was 23.71 ± 6.83 ng/mL. Conclusions. Neither changes of lifestyle nor 400 I.U. cholecalciferol supplementation alone appears to be sufficient to restore adequate 25(OH)D levels.International Journal of Endocrinology 11/2014; 2014:583039. DOI:10.1155/2014/583039 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background . Vitamin D status in groups of northern indigenous people of Russia leading close to traditional (seminomadic reindeer herding), post-traditional (in settlements) or "modernized" (in towns) way of life was analysed. Design . The survey study groups consisted of 178 Nenets and Komi aged 18-60 living in the Arctic (66-67°N). Urban Komi, Udmurts and Komi-Permiaks (n=150) living in a non-Arctic area (57-61°N) formed a control group. The concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), as a transport form of vitamin D, was assessed by enzyme immunoassay analysis. Results . The group average 25OHD levels in both rural and urban Arctic residents are within the range of values seen in the non-Arctic urban subjects adjusted for season: 39.7-47.7 nmol/l. Abandoning traditional lifestyle associates with lower vitamin D levels in indigenous Arctic people. Mean±standard deviation 25OHD values among Nenets were lower in those living in the administrative centre (a big settlement) with a population of 1,460 (32.2±12.90 nmol/l) than in the residents of small settlements (39.6±14.08 nmol/l), and in reindeer herders (42.4±13.45 nmol/l; p<0.05 in both cases). Komi townspeople had lower 25OHD concentrations (47.7±12.00 nmol/l) than Komi reindeer herders (68.7±25.20; p<0.01). Conclusion . The transition from seminomadic to post-traditional and "modernized" way of life has led to a decrease in the consumption of traditional foods among the indigenous people of the Russian Arctic. Our data support the notion that the traditional northern diet promotes healthy vitamin D levels, while adherence to the "western" type of diet correlates with a lower 25OHD concentration.International journal of circumpolar health 12/2014; 73:26038. DOI:10.3402/ijch.v73.26038 · 1.30 Impact Factor