Article

Urinary tract infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a minireview

Division of Infectious Diseases, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA.
Journal of infection and public health 01/2009; 2(3):101-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2009.08.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a serious health problem affecting millions of people each year. Infections of the urinary tract are the second most common type of infection in the body. Catheterization of the urinary tract is the most common factor, which predisposes the host to these infections. Catheter-associated UTI (CAUTI) is responsible for 40% of nosocomial infections, making it the most common cause of nosocomial infection. CAUTI accounts for more than 1 million cases in hospitals and nursing homes annually and often involve uropathogens other than Escherichia coli. While the epidemiology and pathogenic mechanisms of uropathogenic Escherichia coli have been extensively studied, little is known about the pathogenesis of UTIs caused by other organisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Scanty available information regarding pathogenesis of UTIs caused by P. aeruginosa is an important bottleneck in developing effective preventive approaches. The aim of this review is to summarize some of the advances made in the field of P. aeruginosa induced UTIs and draws attention of the workers that more basic research at the level of pathogenesis is needed so that novel strategies can be designed.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Rahul Mittal, Jul 07, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
512 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Catheter associated Urinary Tract Infections (CAUTI) constitute the top priority concern in health care set up as they are complicated by drug resisting biofilm forming bacteria. The aim of this study was to observe the prevalence of catheter associated biofilm establishing drug resisting uropathogenic bacteria and to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of extracts of Coleus forskohlii (Indian Coleus) in controlling them. One hundred samples of tips of Foley (urinary) catheters were collected for a period of 5 months during January to May-2013 and processed for isolation of uropathogens using standard bacteriological methods. Twenty six isolates belonging to four different types of bacteria including Escherichia coli (42%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (23%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19%), Staphylococcus aureus (12%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (4%) were obtained. The antibiogram of each isolate of these bacteria as recorded by disc diffusion method revealed that the multidrug resisting strains were very high among bacteria E.coli (72.7%) followed by S.aureus (66.7%), P. aeruginosa (60%) and K.pneumoniae (33.3%). The test on biofilm forming characteristics indicated that ten isolates from a total of 26 exhibit positivity with the bacteria K.pneumoniae (50%) predominating. The detection of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) by Double Disc Synergy test showed that its production was highest among the bacteria E. coli (75%) followed by K. pneumoniae (66.6%) and P. aeruginosa (50%). The ethanolic root extract of Indian Coleues when tested by Agar well diffusion method caused the inhibition of all the six strains of ESBL producing uropathogens while the aqueous extract was ineffective. Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of ethanolic extract revealed the occurrence of eight bioactive compounds corresponding to major peaks. As the root extract of Indian Coleus promises to be a potential drug, the need for exploring the pharmacological properties of its phytochemicals and possible application of the plant extract for treating UTI complicated by biofilm forming and multidrug resisting uropathogens has been suggested.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Several studies have described the prevalence and severity of diagnostic errors. Diagnostic errors can arise from cognitive, training, educational and other issues. Examples of cognitive issues include flawed reasoning, incomplete knowledge, faulty information gathering or interpretation, and inappropriate use of decision-making heuristics. We describe a new approach, case-based fuzzy cognitive maps, for medical diagnosis and evaluate it by comparison with Bayesian belief networks. We created a semantic web framework that supports the two reasoning methods. We used database of 174 anonymous patients from several European hospitals: 80 of the patients were female and 94 male with an average age 45 ± 16 (average ± stdev). Thirty of the 80 female patients were pregnant. For each patient, signs/symptoms/observables/age/sex were taken into account by the system. We used a statistical approach to compare the two methods.
    Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine 01/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.cmpb.2013.09.012 · 1.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective To determine the community associated urinary tract infection (UTI) causing uropathogen's prevalence, antibiotic resistance pattern and the risk factors predisposing infection in Indian rural settings.MethodsA pilot study was conducted between January and December 2010 among out patients attending rural teaching medical college hospital at Tamilnadu, India. The demographic details, culture, common antibiotic Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay susceptibility profiles of the isolates and the resistance analysis by WHONET 5.6 software were performed.ResultsDuring this surveillance study, a total number of 1 359 urinary samples were collected, among which 309 (22.78%) gave positive culture. The common uropathogens encountered were Escherichia coli (66.02%), Staphylococcus sp. (12.62%), Klebsiella sp. (5.83%), Streptococcus sp. (5.18%), Enterococcus sp. (2.59%) and Proteus sp., (2.26%). Antibiotic resistance analysis revealed the multiple drug resistance nature of the isolates to the commonly used antibiotics. It is also found that both genders at the specific age group of 40-50 were more prone to infection and seasonal variations also play an important role in their establishment.Conclusions The obtained results suggest that antibiotic selection for empirical treatment should be based on individual drug-sensitive test results. There is also an urgent need to develop a new combination of chemotherapeutic agents and awareness on antibiotic use for the effective UTI management in rural settings.
    10/2012; DOI:10.1016/S2222-1808(12)60082-6