Predictive biomarker discovery through the parallel integration of clinical trial and functional genomics datasets.

Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, WC2A 3PX, UK. .
Genome Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.94). 01/2010; 2(8):53. DOI: 10.1186/gm174
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The European Union multi-disciplinary Personalised RNA interference to Enhance the Delivery of Individualised Cytotoxic and Targeted therapeutics (PREDICT) consortium has recently initiated a framework to accelerate the development of predictive biomarkers of individual patient response to anti-cancer agents. The consortium focuses on the identification of reliable predictive biomarkers to approved agents with anti-angiogenic activity for which no reliable predictive biomarkers exist: sunitinib, a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor and everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway inhibitor. Through the analysis of tumor tissue derived from pre-operative renal cell carcinoma (RCC) clinical trials, the PREDICT consortium will use established and novel methods to integrate comprehensive tumor-derived genomic data with personalized tumor-derived small hairpin RNA and high-throughput small interfering RNA screens to identify and validate functionally important genomic or transcriptomic predictive biomarkers of individual drug response in patients. PREDICT's approach to predictive biomarker discovery differs from conventional associative learning approaches, which can be susceptible to the detection of chance associations that lead to overestimation of true clinical accuracy. These methods will identify molecular pathways important for survival and growth of RCC cells and particular targets suitable for therapeutic development. Importantly, our results may enable individualized treatment of RCC, reducing ineffective therapy in drug-resistant disease, leading to improved quality of life and higher cost efficiency, which in turn should broaden patient access to beneficial therapeutics, thereby enhancing clinical outcome and cancer survival. The consortium will also establish and consolidate a European network providing the technological and clinical platform for large-scale functional genomic biomarker discovery. Here we review our current understanding of molecular mechanisms driving resistance to anti-angiogenesis agents, the current limitations of laboratory and clinical trial strategies and how the PREDICT consortium will endeavor to identify a new generation of predictive biomarkers.

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    ABSTRACT: Drug resistance mechanisms in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) still remain elusive. Although most patients initially respond to targeted therapy, acquired resistance can still develop eventually. Most of the patients suffer from intrinsic (genetic) resistance as well, suggest-ing that there is substantial need to broaden our knowledge in the field of RCC genetics. As molecular abnormalities occur for various reasons, ranging from single nucleotide poly-morphisms to large chromosomal defects, conducting whole-genome association studies using high-throughput techniques seems inevitable. In principle, data obtained via genome-wide research should be continued and performed on a large scale for the purposes of drug development and identification of biological pathways underlying cancerogenesis. Genetic alterations are mostly unique for each histological RCC subtype. According to recently pub-lished data, RCC is a highly heterogeneous tumor. In this paper, the authors discuss the following: (1) current state-of-the-art knowledge on the potential biomarkers of RCC sub-types; (2) significant obstacles encountered in the translational research on RCC; and (3) recent molecular findings that may have a crucial impact on future therapeutic approaches.
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