Potential Association Between the Oral Tetracycline Class of Antimicrobials Used to Treat Acne and Inflammatory Bowel Disease
ABSTRACT Previous studies have shown an association between isotretinoin and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The majority of patients prescribed isotretinoin for their acne are previously on an extended course of antibiotics. Therefore, it is important to consider antibiotic use as a confounding variable for the development of IBD.
We performed a retrospective cohort study using The Health Improvement Network database of the United Kingdom. We identified 94,487 individuals with acne who were followed up by a general practitioner for 406,294 person-years.
>A prescription for minocycline was received by 24,085 individuals, for tetracycline/oxytetracycline by 38,603 individuals, and doxycycline by 15,032 individuals. IBD was noted in 41 individuals exposed to minocycline, 79 individuals exposed to tetracycline/oxytetracycline, 32 individuals exposed to doxycycline, and 55 (0.11%) individuals not exposed to any of these antibiotics. The hazard ratio (HR) for developing IBD for any exposure to a tetracycline antibiotic was 1.39 (1.02, 1.90). HRs for individual antibiotics were 1.19 (0.79, 1.79) for minocycline, 1.43 (1.02, 2.02) for tetracycline/oxytetracycline, and 1.63 (1.05, 2.52) for doxycycline. For ulcerative colitis, the associations (HR) were 1.10 (0.76, 1.82) for minocycline, 1.27 (0.78, 2.07) for tetracycline/oxytetracycline, and 1.06 (0.53, 2.13) for doxycycline. For Crohn's disease (CD), the associations (HR) were 1.28 (0.72, 2.30) for minocycline, 1.61 (0.995, 2.63) for tetracycline/oxytetracycline, and 2.25 (1.27 4.00) for doxycycline.
Tetracycline class antibiotics, and particularly doxycycline use may be associated with the development of IBD, particularly CD. Potential confounding by previous doxycycline exposure should be considered when assessing whether treatment with other acne medications increases the risk of IBD.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis investigating antibiotic exposure as a risk factor for developing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).METHODS:A literature search using Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases was performed to identify studies providing data on the association between antibiotic use and newly diagnosed IBD. Included studies reported Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), or a composite of both (IBD) as the primary outcome and evaluated antibiotic exposure before being diagnosed with IBD. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to determine overall pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).RESULTS:A total of 11 observational studies (8 case-control and 3 cohort) including 7,208 patients diagnosed with IBD were analyzed. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for IBD among patients exposed to any antibiotic was 1.57 (95% CI 1.27-1.94). Antibiotic exposure was significantly associated with CD (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.35-2.23) but was not significant for UC (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.91-1.27). Exposure to antibiotics most markedly increased the risk of CD in children (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.72-4.38). All antibiotics were associated with IBD, with the exception of penicillin. Exposure to metronidazole (OR 5.01, 95% CI 1.65-15.25) or fluoroquinolones (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.03-3.12) was most strongly associated with new-onset IBD.CONCLUSIONS:Exposure to antibiotics appears to increase the odds of being newly diagnosed with CD but not UC. This risk is most marked in children diagnosed with CD.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 16 September 2014; doi:10.1038/ajg.2014.246.The American Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2014; 109(11). DOI:10.1038/ajg.2014.246 · 9.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) is complex, and our knowledge on the topic is constantly growing. The two disorders are distinct, yet overlap in their clinical manifestations and underlying causes. This review aims to provide a broad overview of the numerous pathogenetic factors that can lead to the development of IBD, focusing on novel findings and on the differences between UC and CD. Recent advances in genetics have identified new components in the pathogenesis, as an example, the importance of Th17 lymphocytes and the IL-17/IL-23 pathway have been highlighted in both diseases, apart from the previously known Th1-Th2 driven processes. Genetic background of increased permeability has been explored in UC, and the role of defective autophagy was recently described in CD. Genetic alterations can lead to an exaggerated immune response to the resident microbial flora. This microflora is altered in IBD patients, probably due to their reduced ability to stabilize its bacterial components and due to different environmental factors. An exhaustive exploration of environmental factors is particularly important, as they can be influential in many cases. The impact of smoking is the most established environmental factor, having deleterious effects in CD and protective in UC. Recent opinions on other factors, such as early appendectomy, diet, reduced vitamin D levels, the use of specific medications, breastfeeding, personal hygiene and psychological factors are also discussed. Epigenetics, a new field of research, links environmental factors to genetics. Understanding these factors is of great significance as changing lifestyles and improving life circumstances have started to increase the prevalence of IBD also in developing countries.
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ABSTRACT: Isotretinoin is the standard treatment for refractory severe nodulocystic acne. A true association between prior isotretinoin use and development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is uncertain. Addressing the reality of this association is important in decision making for both the clinician and the patient when isotretinoin treatment is indicated.JAMA Dermatology 09/2014; 150(12). DOI:10.1001/jamadermatol.2014.1540 · 4.30 Impact Factor