A 96-well plate assay for CYP4503A induction using cryopreserved human hepatocytes.
ABSTRACT A reliable and practical CYP3A induction assay with cryopreserved human hepatocytes in a 96-well format was developed. Various 96-well plates with different basement membrane were evaluated using prototypical inducers, rifampicin, phenytoin, and carbamazepine. Thin-layer (TL) Matrigel was found to yield the highest basal and induced levels of CYP3A activity as determined by testosterone 6β-hydroxylation. Concentration-dependent CYP3A induction of rifampicin was reproducible with the EC(50) values of 0.36 ± 0.28 μM from four batches of human hepatocytes using the 96-well plate with TL Matrigel. The rank order of induction potency for nine inducers or noninducers at a concentration of 10 μM were well comparable among the multiple donors, by expressing the results as percentage of change compared with the positive control, 10 μM rifampicin. Cotreatment of avasimibe or efavirenz with 10 μM rifampicin was found to reduce CYP3A activities induced by rifampicin at a lower rate than treatment with rifampicin alone, whereas treatment with phenobarbital and carbamazepine had no effect. From a comparison of induced CYP3A activities and gene expression levels, there were compounds that would cause induction of CYP3A4 mRNA but not activity, presumably due to their inhibitory effect on CYP3A activity. The cotreatment assay of test compound with rifampicin allows us to exclude the false-negative results caused by the cytotoxicity and/or the mechanism-based inactivation, when the drug candidate's ability for CYP3A induction is evaluating the enzyme activity. This 96-well plate assay, which is robust, reproducible, and convenient, has demonstrated the paramount applicability to the early drug discovery stage.
- SourceAvailable from: Liang Schweizerinternational journal of drug discovery. 11/2011;
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ABSTRACT: Clopidogrel is a prodrug used widely as a platelet aggregation inhibitor. After intestinal absorption, approximately 90% is converted to inactive clopidogrel carboxylate and 10% via a two-step procedure to the active metabolite containing a mercapto group. Hepatotoxicity is a rare but potentially serious adverse reaction associated with clopidogrel. The aim of the current study was to find out mechanisms and susceptibility factors for clopidogrel-associated hepatotoxicity. In primary human hepatocytes, clopidogrel (10 and 100μM) was cytotoxic only after CYP-induction by rifampicin. Clopidogrel (10 and 100μM) was also toxic for HepG2 cells expressing human CYP3A4 (HepG2/CYP3A4) and HepG2 cells co-incubated with CYP3A4 supersomes (HepG2/CYP3A4 supersome), but not for wild-type HepG2 cells (HepG2/wt). Clopidogrel (100μM) decreased the cellular glutathione content in HepG2/CYP3A4 supersome and triggered an oxidative stress reaction (10µM and 100µM) in HepG2/CYP3A4, but not in HepG2 cells/wt. Glutathione depletion significantly increased the cytotoxicity of clopidogrel (10µM and 100µM) in HepG2/CYP3A4 supersome. Co-incubation with 1μM ketoconazole or 10mM glutathione almost completely prevented the cytotoxic effect of clopidogrel in HepG2/CYP3A4 or HepG2/CYP3A4 supersome, respectively. HepG2/CYP3A4 incubated with 100μM clopidogrel showed mitochondrial damage and cytochrome c release, eventually promoting apoptosis and/or necrosis. In contrast to clopidogrel, clopidogrel carboxylate was not toxic for HepG2/wt or HepG2/CYP3A4 up to 100µM. In conclusion, clopidogrel incubated with CYP3A4 is associated with the formation of metabolites which are toxic for hepatocytes and can be trapped by glutathione. High CYP3A4 activity and low cellular glutathione stores may be risk factors for clopidogrel-associated hepatocellular toxicity.Free radical biology & medicine 06/2013; · 5.42 Impact Factor