Stroke is a complex disease caused by combination of multiple risk factors. Recent findings have suggested that stroke has a strong genetic component. Evidence suggests that variations in the estrogen receptor α (ESR1) gene may influence stroke risk.
The present study was carried out to investigate the role of ESR1 gene polymorphisms [PvuII (rs 2234693) and XbaI (rs 9340799)] with stroke in a South Indian population from Andhra Pradesh. The relationship between ESR1 genotypes with estradiol levels was also investigated in pre- and postmenopausal women.
Four hundred patients with ischemic stroke and three hundred and eighty subjects were enrolled in this case-control study. Ischemic stroke subtypes were classified according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) classification. The ESR1 PvuII and XbaI genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP method. Serum estradiol was measured by ELISA.
In case of PvuII polymorphism statistically significant difference was observed in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between patients and controls (joint analysis of men and women) (p=0.003 and 0.004 respectively). However, the XbaI genotypes and alleles did not show an association with stroke in the study population. When the analysis was carried out separately for men and women, the PvuII polymorphism did not show significant association with stroke in men; women showed a significant association. Further when women were grouped in to premenopausal and postmenopausal, the premenopausal group did not show a significant association with the polymorphism but significant association with stroke was found in postmenopausal women. A stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed these findings. Women with pp genotype had low estradiol levels in comparison with PP genotypic individuals (p<0.05). Further evaluating the association of this polymorphism with stroke subtypes, we found significant association of PvuII polymorphism with extracranial atherosclerosis, lacunar and cardioembolic stroke.
In conclusion our results suggest the PvuII gene polymorphism is significantly associated with stroke in postmenopausal women in a South Indian population from Andhra Pradesh. The pp genotypes have average 17β estradiol levels which are significantly low in comparison with PP genotypes. Therefore postmenopausal women with a high frequency of pp genotype are more predisposed to ischemic stroke. However, this is a preliminary study and the results need to be confirmed in a larger cohort.
"Recent studies have determined that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ESRα might be related to many disorders, including osteoporosis , stroke , and Alzheimer’s disease . Interestingly, other studies have indicated that the SNPs in ESRα are also associated with many psychiatric disorders. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Estrogen is believed to play an important role in the central nervous system (CNS) and exert a protective role against schizophrenia. Estrogen receptor alpha (ESRα) mediates the biological action of estrogen. Rs2234693 and rs9340799, single nucleotide polymorphisms of ESRα, may be related to many psychiatric disorders, while their association with schizophrenia has not been clarified.
Genotypes rs2234693 and rs9340799 were detected in 303 schizophrenic patients and 292 healthy controls in a Chinese population. The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) was used to estimate symptoms and therapeutic effects. The association of these polymorphisms with schizophrenia and clinical characteristics was analyzed by the chi-square test, analysis of variance, and others.
The distribution of genotypes and allele frequencies of rs2234693 and rs9340799 exhibited no significant differences between patients and controls, while haplotypes consisting of these polymorphisms had significant differences. For 2234693, T-allele carriers had an earlier age at onset. CC-homozygote carriers had a higher general psychopathology score and its percentage reduction in male and paranoid patients, respectively. CC-homozygote carriers had a higher tension (G4) and poor impulse control (G14) score, mainly in paranoid patients. Furthermore, patients with the CC homozygote had higher reductions of G4 and G14 scores when treated by aripirazole and risperidone, respectively.
Haplotypes consisting of these two polymorphisms in ESRα may be strongly associated with schizophrenia. The rs2234693 was related to age at onset, general psychopathology, G4 and G14 symptoms, even the therapeutic effect in different groups.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective was to determine the effect of long-term dietary supplementation of two types of fish oil on lipid composition and steroidogenesis in adult pig testis. Twenty-four Duroc boars, aged 204.5 ± 9.4 d (body weight 128.1 ± 16.7 kg) received daily 2.5 kg of an iso-caloric basal diet supplemented with: 1) 62 g of hydrogenated animal fat (AF); 2) 60 g of menhaden oil (MO) containing 16% of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 18% of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); or 3) 60 g of tuna oil (TO) containing 7% of EPA and 33% of DHA. After these diets were consumed for 7 mo, testicular hormones, phospholipid content, and fatty acid composition of individual phospholipids in testis were determined. Body and reproductive organ weights were not significantly affected by dietary treatments. Testicular tissue from boars fed a TO diet, followed by those receiving MO and AF diets, had the lowest level of phosphatidylethanolamine (TO < MO < AF; P < 0.01) but the highest sphingomyelin (TO > MO > AF; P < 0.01). For each phospholipid, boars fed either the MO or TO diet had increased total omega-3 fatty acids, particularly DHA (P < 0.01), by reciprocal replacement of total omega-6 fatty acids (20:4n-6, 22:5n-6). The MO diet increased EPA more than the other diets. Testicular concentrations of testosterone and estradiol were lower in boars fed a TO diet than a MO diet (P < 0.02). In conclusion, long-term dietary supplementation of fish oil, regardless of the EPA/DHA ratio, modified the fatty acid compositions in testis and affected steroid production of healthy adult boars, which may represent a promising models for future studies on fertility.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) plays an important role in lipid metabolism by hydrolyzing triglycerides in chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins. An increasing number of studies have suggested an association of LPL gene variants with the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to test whether HindIII polymorphism of LPL gene is associated with ischemic stroke and its subtypes as well as plasma lipid levels in a South Indian population from Andhra Pradesh. Five hundred and twenty five ischemic stroke patients and 500 controls were enrolled in this case-control study. The LPL HindIII polymorphism was determined by PCR-RFLP technique and the lipid levels were estimated using commercially available kits. We found significant difference in the genotypic distribution between patients and controls [for HindIII (+/+) vs. HindIII (-/-), χ(2)=4.916; p=0.02; Odds ratio=1.59 (95%CI; 1.054-2.413); HindIII (+/+) vs. HindIII (-/-) and HindIII (+/-), χ(2)=5.25; p=0.02; Odds ratio=1.24 (95%CI; 1.03-1.503)]. A stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis confirmedthese findings. The relationship between HindIII genotypes and plasma levels of HDL, LDL, VLDL and triglycerides was analyzed using ANOVA and further confirmed by Post-hoc analysis. The levels of triglycerides were found to be elevated in individuals bearing HindIII (+/+) genotype in comparison with HindIII (-/-) genotype. HDL levels were found to be significantly reduced and triglyceride levels significantly elevated in HindIII (+/+) genotype in comparison with HindIII (-/-). However, there was no difference in the levels of LDL and VLDL between the two genotypes. Examining the association of LPL gene HindIII polymorphism with stroke subtypes, we found significant association of HindIII polymorphism with Intracranial large artery atherosclerosis [Odds ratio=2.12 955CI (1.656-2.848); p=0.009]. Our results suggest that the HindIII polymorphism of LPL is significantly associated with ischemic stroke risk and elevated levels of plasma triglycerides and reduced HDL levels. Further, this polymorphism is significantly associated with intracranial large artery atherosclerosis which is the most frequent subtype in our region.
Journal of the neurological sciences 04/2012; 318(1-2):51-4. DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2012.04.006 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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