Estrogen receptor α genetic variants and the risk of stroke in a South Indian population from Andhra Pradesh.
ABSTRACT Stroke is a complex disease caused by combination of multiple risk factors. Recent findings have suggested that stroke has a strong genetic component. Evidence suggests that variations in the estrogen receptor α (ESR1) gene may influence stroke risk.
The present study was carried out to investigate the role of ESR1 gene polymorphisms [PvuII (rs 2234693) and XbaI (rs 9340799)] with stroke in a South Indian population from Andhra Pradesh. The relationship between ESR1 genotypes with estradiol levels was also investigated in pre- and postmenopausal women.
Four hundred patients with ischemic stroke and three hundred and eighty subjects were enrolled in this case-control study. Ischemic stroke subtypes were classified according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) classification. The ESR1 PvuII and XbaI genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP method. Serum estradiol was measured by ELISA.
In case of PvuII polymorphism statistically significant difference was observed in the genotypic and allelic frequencies between patients and controls (joint analysis of men and women) (p=0.003 and 0.004 respectively). However, the XbaI genotypes and alleles did not show an association with stroke in the study population. When the analysis was carried out separately for men and women, the PvuII polymorphism did not show significant association with stroke in men; women showed a significant association. Further when women were grouped in to premenopausal and postmenopausal, the premenopausal group did not show a significant association with the polymorphism but significant association with stroke was found in postmenopausal women. A stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed these findings. Women with pp genotype had low estradiol levels in comparison with PP genotypic individuals (p<0.05). Further evaluating the association of this polymorphism with stroke subtypes, we found significant association of PvuII polymorphism with extracranial atherosclerosis, lacunar and cardioembolic stroke.
In conclusion our results suggest the PvuII gene polymorphism is significantly associated with stroke in postmenopausal women in a South Indian population from Andhra Pradesh. The pp genotypes have average 17β estradiol levels which are significantly low in comparison with PP genotypes. Therefore postmenopausal women with a high frequency of pp genotype are more predisposed to ischemic stroke. However, this is a preliminary study and the results need to be confirmed in a larger cohort.
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ABSTRACT: We have cloned a novel member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The cDNA of clone 29 was isolated from a rat prostate cDNA library and it encodes a protein of 485 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 54.2 kDa. Clone 29 protein is unique in that it is highly homologous to the rat estrogen receptor (ER) protein, particularly in the DNA-binding domain (95%) and in the C-terminal ligand-binding domain (55%). Expression of clone 29 in rat tissues was investigated by in situ hybridization and prominent expression was found in prostate and ovary. In the prostate clone 29 is expressed in the epithelial cells of the secretory alveoli, whereas in the ovary the granuloma cells in primary, secondary, and mature follicles showed expression of clone 29. Saturation ligand-binding analysis of in vitro synthesized clone 29 protein revealed a single binding component for 17beta-estradiol (E2) with high affinity (Kd= 0.6 nM). In ligand-competition experiments the binding affinity decreased in the order E2 > diethylstilbestrol > estriol > estrone > 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol > testosterone = progesterone = corticosterone = 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol. In cotransfection experiments of Chinese hamster ovary cells with a clone 29 expression vector and an estrogen-regulated reporter gene, maximal stimulation (about 3-fold) of reporter gene activity was found during incubation with 10 nM of E2. Neither progesterone, testosterone, dexamethasone, thyroid hormone, all-trans-retinoic acid, nor 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,I7beta-diol could stimulate reporter gene activity, whereas estrone and 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol did. We conclude that clone 29 cDNA encodes a novel rat ER, which we suggest be named rat ERbeta to distinguish it from the previously cloned ER (ERalpha) from rat uterus.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/1996; 93(12):5925-30. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The estrogen receptor (ER) plays an important role in mediating estrogen action on target tissues. ER-alpha, the most abundant, is found in all human reproductive tissues and studies on alpha-ER knockout mice have highlighted its role in reproduction. ER-alpha gene (ESR1) polymorphisms have been associated with a variety of disorders including human infertility. In this study, we examined the association of ESR1 PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms with fertility in two populations with different reproductive patterns and precisely in a sample of healthy Italian men and women (n=178) and in a sample of healthy African-Ecuadorian women (n=57). ESR1 xx and ppxx genotypes among the Italian men were found to be associated with an above-median number of children (P=0.01 and P=0.004, respectively). ESR1 pp genotype among the Italian women showed a tendency to be associated with a lower number of abortions (P=0.04), whereas ESR1 pp and ppxx genotypes among African-Ecuadorian women were associated with a higher number of children (P=0.02 and P=0.03, respectively). These results are consistent with previous observations indicating a role of ESR1 genotypes in human infertility and give insight into the complex interactions between genotypes and reproductive behaviours in human populations.Molecular Human Reproduction 09/2007; 13(8):537-40. · 4.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to determine if estrogens protect female rats from the neurodegenerative effects of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. The rats were ovariectomized and 7 or 8 days later various estrogen preparations were administered before or after MCA occlusion. Pretreatment with 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E2) or a brain-targeted 17beta-E2 chemical delivery system (CDS) decreased mortality from 65% in ovariectomized rats to 22% in 17beta-E2-treated and 16% in 17beta-E2 CDS-treated rats. This marked reduction in mortality was accompanied by a reduction in the ischemic area of the brain from 25.6+/-5.7% in the ovariectomized rats to 9.8+/-4% and 9.1+/-4.2% in the 17beta-E2-implanted and the 17beta-E2 CDS-treated rats, respectively. Similarly, pretreatment with the presumed inactive estrogen, 17alpha-estradiol, reduced mortality from 36 to 0% and reduced the ischemic area by 55 to 81%. When administered 40 or 90 minutes after MCA occlusion, 17beta-E2 CDS reduced the area of ischemia by 45 to 90% or 31%, respectively. In summary, the present study provides the first evidence that estrogens exert neuroprotective effects in an animal model of ischemia and suggests that estrogens may be a useful therapy to protect neurons against the neurodegenerative effects of stroke.Journal of Neurosurgery 12/1997; 87(5):724-30. · 3.15 Impact Factor