This study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicities, and pharmacokinetic profile of TTI-237, a novel anti-tubulin drug, administered weekly in patients with refractory solid tumors.
Using an accelerated dose escalation design, patients with refractory solid tumors were enrolled in this study and treated with TTI-237 intravenously on days 1, 8 and 15 of a 28-day cycle. The starting dose was 4.5 mg/m(2). Pharmacokinetic studies were performed in patients at all dose levels.
Twenty-eight patients were enrolled and treated with TTI-237 at dose of 4.5, 9, 15, 22.5 and 31.5 mg/m(2). One dose-limiting toxicity neutropenia fever was observed at 31.5 mg/m(2), and all seven patients developed grade 3 or 4 neutropenia at that dose level. TTI-237 dosage was de-escalated to 22.5 and 18 mg/m(2). Six patients were treated at the 18 mg/m(2) dose level without dose-limiting toxicity prior to trial termination. The mean terminal-phase elimination half-life (t(1/2)) for TTI-237 was 25-29 h, and the mean area under the concentration time curve at 31.5 mg/m(2) was 2,768 ng•h/mL.
A protocol defined maximum tolerated dose was not determined because of early termination of the TTI-237 trial by the sponsor. 18 mg/m(2) may be a tolerable dose of TTI-237.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in our understanding of the biology of microtubule (MT) assembly into the mitotic spindle during mitosis and the molecular signaling and execution of the various pathways to apoptosis. In the same period, the microtubule-targeted tubulin-polymerizing agents (MTPAs), notably paclitaxel and taxotere, have come to occupy a central role in the treatment of a variety of human epithelial cancers. Following their binding to B-tubulin, MTPAs inhibit MT dynamic instability, cell cycle G2/M phase transition and mitotic arrest of cancer cells. MTPA-induced anti-MT and cell cycle effects trigger the molecular signaling for the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. This triggering is orchestrated through different molecular links and determined by the threshold for apoptosis that is set and controlled diversely in various cancer types. The complexity and regulatory potential of the links and the apoptosis threshold are integral to the transformed biology of the cancer cell. The emerging understanding of this biology and how it is influenced by treatment with MTPAs has highlighted novel strategies to further enhance the antitumor activity and overcome resistance to MTPA-induced apoptosis in cancer cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aurora is the name given to a family of highly conserved protein kinases with essential roles in many aspects of cell division. Yeasts have a single Aurora kinase, whereas mammals have three: Aurora A, B and C. During mitosis, Aurora kinases regulate the structure and function of the cytoskeleton and chromosomes and the interactions between these two at the kinetochore. They also regulate signalling by the spindle-assembly checkpoint pathway and cytokinesis. Perturbation of Aurora kinase expression or function might lead to cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the randomized, multinational phase II/III trial (V325) of untreated advanced gastric cancer patients, the phase II part selected docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil (DCF) over docetaxel and cisplatin for comparison against cisplatin and fluorouracil (CF; reference regimen) in the phase III part.
Advanced gastric cancer patients were randomly assigned to docetaxel 75 mg/m2 and cisplatin 75 mg/m2 (day 1) plus fluorouracil 750 mg/m2/d (days 1 to 5) every 3 weeks or cisplatin 100 mg/m2 (day 1) plus fluorouracil 1,000 mg/m2/d (days 1 to 5) every 4 weeks. The primary end point was time-to-progression (TTP).
In 445 randomly assigned and treated patients (DCF = 221; CF = 224), TTP was longer with DCF versus CF (32% risk reduction; log-rank P < .001). Overall survival was longer with DCF versus CF (23% risk reduction; log-rank P = .02). Two-year survival rate was 18% with DCF and 9% with CF. Overall response rate was higher with DCF (chi2 P = .01). Grade 3 to 4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 69% (DCF) v 59% (CF) of patients. Frequent grade 3 to 4 toxicities for DCF v CF were: neutropenia (82% v 57%), stomatitis (21% v 27%), diarrhea (19% v 8%), lethargy (19% v 14%). Complicated neutropenia was more frequent with DCF than CF (29% v 12%).
Adding docetaxel to CF significantly improved TTP, survival, and response rate in gastric cancer patients, but resulted in some increase in toxicity. Incorporation of docetaxel, as in DCF or with other active drug(s), is a new therapy option for patients with untreated advanced gastric cancer.
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