TP53 Mutation and Survival in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

University of Cologne, Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
Journal of Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 18.43). 10/2010; 28(29):4473-9. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2009.27.8762
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The precise prognostic impact of TP53 mutation and its incorporation into treatment algorithms in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is unclear. We set out to define the impact of TP53 mutations in CLL.
We assessed TP53 mutations by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (exons 2 to 11) in a randomized prospective trial (n = 375) with a follow-up of 52.8 months (German CLL Study Group CLL4 trial; fludarabine [F] v F + cyclophosphamide [FC]).
We found TP53 mutations in 8.5% of patients (28 of 328 patients). None of the patients with TP53 mutation showed a complete response. In patients with TP53 mutation, compared with patients without TP53 mutation, median progression-free survival (PFS; 23.3 v 62.2 months, respectively) and overall survival (OS; 29.2 v 84.6 months, respectively) were significantly decreased (both P < .001). TP53 mutations in the absence of 17p deletions were found in 4.5% of patients. PFS and OS for patients with 17p deletion and patients with TP53 mutation in the absence of 17p deletion were similar. Multivariate analysis identified TP53 mutation as the strongest prognostic marker regarding PFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.8; P < .001) and OS (HR = 7.2; P < .001). Other independent predictors of OS were IGHV mutation status (HR = 1.9), 11q deletion (HR = 1.9), 17p deletion (HR = 2.3), and FC treatment arm (HR = 0.6).
CLL with TP53 mutation carries a poor prognosis regardless of the presence of 17p deletion when treated with F-based chemotherapy. Thus, TP53 mutation analysis should be incorporated into the evaluation of patients with CLL before treatment initiation. Patients with TP53 mutation should be considered for alternative treatment approaches.

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    • "TP53 inactivation, mostly via mutations, occurs in up to 50% epithelial cancers at diagnosis [15,16]. In contrast, TP53 mutation or del (17p) is only found in only 5% to 10% of CLL patients at diagnosis [17-19]. Therefore, other mechanisms leading to TP53 malfunction may exist. "
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    ABSTRACT: TP53 mutation/deletion is uncommon in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We postulated that components of TP53-centered tumor suppressor network, miR-34b/c, in addition to DAPK1 and miR-34a might be inactivated by DNA hypermethylation. Moreover, we tested if miR-34b/c methylation might correlate with miR-203 or miR-124-1 methylation in CLL. miR-34b/c, miR-34a and DAPK1 methylation was studied in 11 normal controls, 7 CLL cell lines, and 78 diagnostic CLL samples by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. MEC-1 cells were treated with 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine for reversal of methylation-associated miRNA silencing. Tumor suppressor properties of miR-34b were demonstrated by over-expression of precursor miR-34b in MEC-1 cells. miR-34b/c promoter was unmethylated in normal controls, but completely methylated in 4 CLL cell lines. miR-34b/c expression inversely correlated with miR-34b/c methylation. Different MSP statuses of miR-34b/c, including complete methylation and complete unmethylation, were verified by quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment resulted in promoter demethylation and miR-34b re-expression in MEC1 cells. Moreover, over-expression of miR-34b resulted in inhibition of cellular proliferation and increased cell death. In primary CLL samples, miR-34a, miR-34b/c and DAPK1 methylation was detected in 2.6%, 17.9% and 34.6% of patients at diagnosis respectively. Furthermore, 39.7%, 3.8% and 2.6% patients had methylation of one, two or all three genes respectively. Overall, 46.2% patients had methylation of at least one of these three genes. Besides, miR-34b/c methylation was associated with methylation of miR-34a (P = 0.03) and miR-203 (P = 0.012) in CLL. Taken together, miR-34b/c is a tumor suppressor miRNA frequently methylated, and hence silenced in CLL. Together with DAPK1 methylation, miR-34b/c methylation is implicated in the disruption of the TP53-centered tumor suppressor network. Moreover, the association of miRNA methylation warrants further study.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 02/2014; 12(1):52. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-12-52 · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    • "In some hematopoietic malignancies, inactivating mutations of p53 are involved with chromosomal instability and progression towards acute leukemia, such as complex karyotype myelodysplastic syndromes[3], [4], [5], [6] and chronic phase Philadelphia-chromosome positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)[7]. Moreover, chromosomal aberrations of the long arm of chromosome 17 (locus of p53) or inactivating p53 mutations impede cancer therapies, such as fludarabine-based chemotherapy in CLL[8], BCR/ABL-targeted therapies in CML[9] – as well as induction chemotherapy in AML[10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Inactivation of the p53 pathway is a universal event in human cancers and promotes tumorigenesis and resistance to chemotherapy. Inactivating p53 mutations are uncommon in non-complex karyotype leukemias, thus the p53-pathway must be inactivated by other mechanisms. The Apoptosis Stimulating Protein of p53-2 (ASPP2) is a damage-inducible p53-binding protein that enhances apoptosis at least in part through a p53-mediated pathway. We have previously shown, that ASPP2 is an independent haploinsufficient tumor suppressor in vivo. Now, we reveal that ASPP2 expression is significantly attenuated in acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemia - especially in patients with an unfavorable prognostic risk profile and patients who fail induction chemotherapy. In line, knock down of ASPP2 in expressing leukemia cell lines and native leukemic blasts attenuates damage-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, cultured blasts derived from high-risk leukemias fail to induce ASPP2 expression upon anthracycline treatment. The mechanisms of ASPP2 dysregulation are unknown. We provide evidence that attenuation of ASPP2 is caused by hypermethylation of the promoter and 5'UTR regions in native leukemia blasts. Together, our results suggest that ASPP2 contributes to the biology of leukemia and expression should be further explored as a potential prognostic and/or predictive biomarker to monitor therapy responses in acute leukemia.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e80193. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0080193 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "However, since the time that clinical staging systems were developed [1], [2], it has been appreciated that there is clinical variability between CLL patients. Efforts to better characterize this variability led to the identification and extensive validation of numerous molecular prognostic markers [3], [4], [5], [6], [7]. Research in this field has highlighted the concept that molecular markers can link biology with clinical outcomes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is typically regarded as an indolent B-cell malignancy. However, there is wide variability with regards to need for therapy, time to progressive disease, and treatment response. This clinical variability is due, in part, to biological heterogeneity between individual patients' leukemias. While much has been learned about this biological variation using genomic approaches, it is unclear whether such efforts have sufficiently evaluated biological and clinical heterogeneity in CLL. To study the extent of genomic variability in CLL and the biological and clinical attributes of genomic classification in CLL, we evaluated 893 unique CLL samples from fifteen publicly available gene expression profiling datasets. We used unsupervised approaches to divide the data into subgroups, evaluated the biological pathways and genetic aberrations that were associated with the subgroups, and compared prognostic and clinical outcome data between the subgroups. Using an unsupervised approach, we determined that approximately 600 CLL samples are needed to define the spectrum of diversity in CLL genomic expression. We identified seven genomically-defined CLL subgroups that have distinct biological properties, are associated with specific chromosomal deletions and amplifications, and have marked differences in molecular prognostic markers and clinical outcomes. Our results indicate that investigations focusing on small numbers of patient samples likely provide a biased outlook on CLL biology. These findings may have important implications in identifying patients who should be treated with specific targeted therapies, which could have efficacy against CLL cells that rely on specific biological pathways.
    PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e57356. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0057356 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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