Modulation of the immune system by Boswellia serrata extracts and boswellic acids.
ABSTRACT Extracts from the gum resin of Boswellia serrata and some of is constituents including boswellic acids affect the immune system in different ways. Among the various boswellic acids 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (KBA) and acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid have been observed to be active. However, also other boswellic acids may exhibit actions in the immune system. In the humoral defence system a mixture of boswellic acis at higher doses reduced primary antibody titres; on the other hand lower doses enhanced secondary antibody titres following treatment with sheep erythrocytes. In the cellular defence boswellic acides appear to increase lymphocyte proliferation whereas higher concentrations are even inhibitory. Moreover, BAs increase phagocytosis of macrophages. BAs affect the cellular defence system by interaction with production/release of cytokines. Thus, BAs inhibit activation of NFkappaB which is a product of neutrophile granulocytes. Consequently a down regulation of TNF-alpha and decrease of IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IFN-gamma, which are proinflammatory cytokines by BEs and BAs has been reported. Suppressions of the classic way of the complement system was found to be due to inhibition of the conversion of C3 into C3a and C3b. However, which of these pharmacological actions contribute to the therapeutic effects and which is finally the best dosage of a standardized extract needs further examination. And it is also a question whether or not a single BA will have the same therapeutic effect as a standardized extract. Among the mediators of inflammatory reaction, mast cell stabilisation has been described by a BE. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis appears to play only a minor role as far as the anti-inflammatory effect is concerned. On the other hand the inhibitory action of BAs on 5-LO leading to a decreased production of leukotrienes has received high attention by the scientific community since a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases is associatied with increased leukotriene activity. At the end of the cascade of events in the cellular immune system as far as it directs to various tissues of the body - i.e. autoimmune diseases - formation of oxygen radicals and proteases (for example elastase) play an important destructive role. Here, BEs as well as BAs have been found to be inhibitory. From the pharmacological properties of BEs and BAs it is not surprising that positive effects of BEs in some chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, bronchial asthma, osteoarthritis, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease have been reported.
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ABSTRACT: Boswellic acids (BAs) show anti-inflammatory properties in a variety of inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and asthma. A topical administration route is currently used to deliver active compounds in psoriatic and eczematous patients. In this double-blind study we compare a novel BA formulation (containing Bosexil(®), INCI [International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients]: lecithin, Boswellia serrata resin extract) with a placebo formulation. A third arm of the trial received a formulation of Vaccinium myrtillus seed oil, previously demonstrated as an effective local treatment for psoriatic lesions. Patients with psoriasis or erythematous eczema were randomly assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, to Bosexil(®), V. myrtillus seed oil, or placebo. In order to evaluate the effects of treatment, the changes of scales and erythema from diagnosis to the end of treatment were scored in psoriatic patients, while changes in itch and erythema were analyzed for erythematous eczema patients. Psoriasis Area Severity Index and Eczema Area and Severity Index scores were also calculated. In patients with psoriasis, scales and erythema improved both with Bosexil(®) and the V. myrtillus seed oil treatment in comparison with placebo. In particular, the treatment with Bosexil(®) formulation improved scales (70% of cases) and erythema (50% of cases) without any case of worsening. In patients with eczema, the administration of placebo did not result in any improvement in 90% of cases, and in the remaining 10% worsened both itch and erythema. Bosexil(®) formulation improved both itch (60% of cases) and erythema (60% of cases) without any case of worsening. V. myrtillus seed oil improved itch and erythema in 66.7% and 77.8% of patients, respectively. A topical formulation of Bosexil(®) may be promising for the treatment of psoriasis and erythematous eczema. Long-term studies are recommended to evaluate the adherence to this topical treatment and its clinical benefits in real life.Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology 01/2014; 7:321-327. DOI:10.2147/CCID.S69240
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ABSTRACT: Background: Cognitive impairment is one of the most crucial disorders among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Since MS is an inflammatory disease and Boswellia papyrifera has anti-inflammatory effects, the influence of B. papyrifera on cognitive impairment in MS patients has been investigated in the present study. Methods: In this clinical trial, 80 MS patients who referred to the clinic of Shafa Hospital, Kerman, Iran were selected. Having completed a written consent form, patients with relapsing remitting MS, with no occurrence of a new attack throughout 1 month before the study, with no pregnancy or breastfeeding entered the study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups; then Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) test was carried out. One group received B. papyrifera (capsule 300 mg, twice a day) while the other group received placebo with the same dose for 2 months. After 2 months of treatment, BICAMS was redone and changes were analyzed. The significant change value on the before-after BICAMS points were considered to be 8, 13, and 7 points for the symbol digit modality test (SDMT), the California verbal learning test (CVLT), and the brief visual-spatial memory test revised (BVMT-R), respectively. Results: The patients' mean age was 36.58 8.50 years. The mean duration of disease was 7.41 4.13 years. About 84.2% (n = 64) of the patients was female. In the BVMT-R, 13 patients (34.2%), who had already taken B. papyrifera, were shown to have significant improvement compared to the placebo group with no improvement (P < 0. 001). About 12 and 8 patients in the treatment and placebo groups in the SDMT, respectively (P = 0.200) and 17 and 12 patients in the treatment and placebo groups in the CVLT, respectively (P = 0.170) had significant change values. Conclusion: B. papyrifera showed significant improvement in visuospatial memory, but had no effect on verbal memory and information processing speed.
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ABSTRACT: Boswellic acid consists of a series of pentacyclic triterpene molecules that are produced by the plant Boswellia serrata. The potential applications of Bowsellic acid for treatment of cancer have been focused here. To predict the property of the bowsellic acid derivatives as anticancer compounds by various computational approaches. In this work, all total 65 derivatives of bowsellic acids from the PubChem database were considered for the study. After energy minimization of the ligands various types of molecular descriptors were computed and corresponding two-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were obtained by taking Andrews coefficient as the dependent variable. Different types of comparative analysis were used for QSAR study are multiple linear regression, partial least squares, support vector machines and artificial neural network. From the study geometrical descriptors shows the highest correlation coefficient, which indicates the binding factor of the compound. To evaluate the anticancer property molecular docking study of six selected ligands based on Andrews affinity were performed with nuclear factor-kappa protein kinase (Protein Data Bank ID 4G3D), which is an established therapeutic target for cancers. Along with QSAR study and docking result, it was predicted that bowsellic acid can also be treated as a potential anticancer compound. Along with QSAR study and docking result, it was predicted that bowsellic acid can also be treated as a potential anticancer compound.Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences 01/2015; 7(1):21-5. DOI:10.4103/0975-7406.148784