An in vivo experimental study on osteopenia in diabetic rats.
ABSTRACT Osteopenia is a significant problem associated with Diabetes mellitus. Osteopenia may result in an increased delay in healing of bone fractures and subsequently affect the quality of life. We evaluated the immunohistochemical localization of TRAIL and its receptor DR5 in the femoral bone of 10-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats treated with sesame oil (control, group 1), streptozotocin (STZ), a diabetes inducer (group 2), L-NAME, a general inhibitor of NOS activity (group 3), L-arginine (group 4), (arginine acts as a NO substrate) and iNOS immunostaining in group 1 and group 4. Histological and histochemical findings showed decreased growth of metaphyseal cartilage (which was thinner), decreased osteoid surface, and reduced mineral apposition rate in STZ- and L-NAME-treated rats. These findings confirm that bone formation is impaired in diabetic osteopenia. L-arginine supplementation seems to prevent diabetes-induced bone alterations and preserve the calcification process, allowing synthesis of new bone matrix. The immunohistochemical study revealed increased immunostaining of TRAIL and DR5 in osteoblastic cells of the diaphysis (pre-metaphysis) and epiphysis treated with STZ and L-NAME, related to activation of osteoblastic apoptotic death, while the group receiving L-arginine was comparable to the control group and the higher indications of iNOS activity that may reflect its induction by L-arginine administration. The action of L-arginine suggests that increased NO synthesis and availability is potentially useful for effective prevention and treatment of diabetic osteopenia.
- SourceAvailable from: Rob Van 't Hof[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide has been suggested to be involved in the regulation of bone turnover, especially in pathological conditions characterized by release of bone-resorbing cytokines. The cytokine IL-1 is thought to act as a mediator of periarticular bone loss and tissue damage in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. IL-1 is a potent stimulator of both osteoclastic bone resorption and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in bone cells and other cell types. In this study, we investigated the role that the iNOS pathway plays in mediating the bone-resorbing effects of IL-1 by studying mice with targeted disruption of the iNOS gene. Studies in vitro and in vivo showed that iNOS-deficient mice exhibited profound defects of IL-1-induced osteoclastic bone resorption but responded normally to calciotropic hormones such as 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 and parathyroid hormone. Immunohistochemical studies and electrophoretic mobility shift assays performed on bone marrow cocultures from iNOS-deficient mice showed abnormalities in IL-1-induced nuclear translocation of the p65 component of NFkappaB and in NFkappaB-DNA binding, which were reversed by treatment with the NO donor S-nitroso-acetyl penicillamine. These results show that the iNOS pathway is essential for IL-1-induced bone resorption and suggest that the effects of NO may be mediated by modulating IL-1-induced nuclear activation of NFkappaB in osteoclast precursors.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2000; 97(14):7993-8. · 9.74 Impact Factor
Article: Diabetic bone disease.Calcified Tissue International 10/1991; 49(3):155-60. · 2.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Apoptosis, the cell's intrinsic program to death, plays a central role in physiological growth control and regulation of tissue homeostasis. Tipping the balance between cell death and proliferation in favor of cell survival may result in tumor formation. Also, killing of cancer cells by cytotoxic therapies currently used for treatment of cancer, for example, chemotherapy, gamma-irradiation, immunotherapy, or suicide gene therapy, largely depends on activation of apoptosis programs in cancer cells. Accordingly, failure to undergo apoptosis in response to anticancer therapy may result in cancer resistance. Further insights into the mechanisms regulating apoptosis in response to anticancer therapy and how cancer cells evade cell death may provide novel opportunities for drug development.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 01/2005; 1028:150-6. · 4.38 Impact Factor