Identification of S-nitrosylated targets of thioredoxin using a quantitative proteomic approach.
ABSTRACT Reversible protein cysteine nitrosylation (S-nitrosylation) is a common mechanism utilized in signal transduction and other diverse cellular processes. Protein denitrosylation is largely mediated by cysteine denitrosylases, but the functional scope and significance of these enzymes are incompletely defined, in part due to limited information on their cognate substrates. Here, using Jurkat cells, we employed stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), coupled to the biotin switch technique and mass spectrometry, to identify 46 new substrates of one denitrosylase, thioredoxin 1. These substrates are involved in a wide range of cellular functions including cytoskeletal organization, cellular metabolism, signal transduction, and redox homeostasis. We also identified multiple S-nitrosylated proteins that are not substrates of thioredoxin 1. A verification of our principal findings was made in a second cell type (RAW264.7 cells). Our results point to thioredoxin 1 as a major protein denitrosylase in mammalian cells and demonstrate the utility of quantitative proteomics for large-scale identification of denitrosylase substrates.
Article: Thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems in plants: molecular mechanisms, crosstalks, and functional significance.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Thioredoxins (Trx) and glutaredoxins (Grx) constitute families of thiol oxidoreductases. Our knowledge of Trx and Grx in plants has dramatically increased during the last decade. The release of the Arabidopsis genome sequence revealed an unexpectedly high number of Trx and Grx genes. The availability of several genomes of vascular and nonvascular plants allowed the establishment of a clear classification of the genes and the chronology of their appearance during plant evolution. Proteomic approaches have been developed that identified the putative Trx and Grx target proteins which are implicated in all aspects of plant growth, including basal metabolism, iron/sulfur cluster formation, development, adaptation to the environment, and stress responses. Analyses of the biochemical characteristics of specific Trx and Grx point to a strong specificity toward some target enzymes, particularly within plastidial Trx and Grx. In apparent contradiction with this specificity, genetic approaches show an absence of phenotype for most available Trx and Grx mutants, suggesting that redundancies also exist between Trx and Grx members. Despite this, the isolation of mutants inactivated in multiple genes and several genetic screens allowed the demonstration of the involvement of Trx and Grx in pathogen response, phytohormone pathways, and at several control points of plant development. Cytosolic Trxs are reduced by NADPH-thioredoxin reductase (NTR), while the reduction of Grx depends on reduced glutathione (GSH). Interestingly, recent development integrating biochemical analysis, proteomic data, and genetics have revealed an extensive crosstalk between the cytosolic NTR/Trx and GSH/Grx systems. This crosstalk, which occurs at multiple levels, reveals the high plasticity of the redox systems in plants.Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 04/2012; 17(8):1124-60. · 8.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The thioredoxin system, comprising thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and NADPH, is one of the major cellular antioxidant systems, implicated in a large and growing number of biological functions. Trx acts as an oxidoreductase via a highly conserved dithiol/disulfide motif located in the active site (-Trp-Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys-Lys-). Different factors are involved in the regulation of Trx activity, including its expression level, localization, protein-protein interactions, post-translational modifications and some chemical inhibitors. Mammalian TrxRs are selenoproteins which have a –Cys-Val-Asn-Val-Gly-Cys-N-terminal active site, as well as a C-terminal selenium-containing active site. Besides two Cys-residues in the redox-regulatory domain of cytosolic Trx (Trx1), human Trx1 has three additional Cys-residues. Post-translational modifications of human Trx1 which are involved in the regulation of its activity can happen via modification of Cys-residues including thiol oxidation, glutathionylation and S-nitrosylation or via modification of other amino acid residues such as nitration of Tyr-49. Because of the numerous functions of the thioredoxin system, its inhibition (mainly happens via the targeting TrxR) can result in major cellular consequences, which are potentially pro-oxidant in nature, leading to cell death via necrosis or apoptosis if overexpression of Trx and other antioxidative enzymes can not recuperate cell response. Considering this feature, several anticancer drugs have been used which can inhibit TrxR. Elevated levels of Trx and/or TrxR have been reported in many different human malignancies, positively correlated with aggressive tumor growth and poor prognosis. Moreover, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects of Trx are reasons to study its clinical application as a drug.Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences Iran J Basic Med Sci Iran J Basic Med Sci. 04/2002; 14(14).