Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy

Electrical Engineering Department, UCLA, CA 90095, USA.
Lab on a Chip (Impact Factor: 5.75). 09/2010; 10(18):2419-23. DOI: 10.1039/c004829a
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Protection of human health and well-being through water quality management is an important goal for both the developed and the developing parts of the world. In the meantime, insufficient disinfection techniques still fail to eliminate pathogenic contaminants in freshwater as well as recreational water resources. Therefore, there is a significant need for screening of water quality to prevent waterborne outbreaks and incidents of water-related diseases. Toward this end, here we investigate the use of a field-portable and cost-effective lensfree holographic microscope to image and detect pathogenic protozoan parasites such as Giardia Lamblia and Cryptosporidium Parvum at low concentration levels. This compact lensless microscope (O. Mudanyali et al., Lab Chip, 2010, 10, 1417-1428), weighing approximately 46 grams, achieves a numerical aperture of approximately 0.1-0.2 over an imaging field of view that is more than an order of magnitude larger than a typical 10X objective lens, and therefore may provide an important high-throughput analysis tool for combating waterborne diseases especially in resource limited settings.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A lensfree spectral light-field fusion microscopy (LSLFM) system is presented for enabling contrast- and resolution-enhanced imaging of biological specimens. LSLFM consists of a pulsed multispectral lensfree microscope for capturing interferometric light-field encodings at different wavelengths, and Bayesian-based fusion to reconstruct a fused object light-field from the encodings. By fusing unique object detail information captured at different wavelengths, LSLFM can achieve improved resolution, contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over a single-channel lensfree microscopy system. A five-channel LSLFM system was developed and quantitatively evaluated to validate the design. Experimental results demonstrated that the LSLFM system provided SNR improvements of 6.81-16.55 dB, as well as a six-fold improvement in the dispersion index (DI), over that achieved using a single-channel lensfree deconvolution microscopy system at individual wavelengths. Furthermore, the LSLFM system achieved an increase in numerical aperture (NA) of > 3 times over a single-channel lensfree deconvolution microscopy system at the highest-resolution wavelength used in the study. Samples of Staurastrum paradoxum, a waterborne algae, and human corneal epithelial cells were imaged using the system to illustrate its potential for enhanced imaging of biological specimens.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Measuring plant chlorophyll concentration is a well-known and commonly used method in agriculture and environmental applications for monitoring plant health, which also correlates with many other plant parameters including, e.g., carotenoids, nitrogen, maximum green fluorescence, etc. Direct chlorophyll measurement using chemical extraction is destructive, complex and time-consuming, which has led to the development of mobile optical readers, providing non-destructive but at the same time relatively expensive tools for evaluation of plant chlorophyll levels. Here we demonstrate accurate measurement of chlorophyll concentration in plant leaves using Google Glass and a custom-developed software application together with a cost-effective leaf holder and multi-spectral illuminator device. Two images, taken using Google Glass, of a leaf placed in our portable illuminator device under red and white (i.e., broadband) light-emitting-diode (LED) illumination are uploaded to our servers for remote digital processing and chlorophyll quantification, with results returned to the user in less than 10 seconds. Intensity measurements extracted from the uploaded images are mapped against gold-standard colorimetric measurements made through a commercially available reader to generate calibration curves for plant leaf chlorophyll concentration. Using five plant species to calibrate our system, we demonstrate that our approach can accurately and rapidly estimate chlorophyll concentration of fifteen different plant species under both indoor and outdoor lighting conditions. This Google Glass based chlorophyll measurement platform can display the results in spatiotemporal and tabular forms and would be highly useful for monitoring of plant health in environmental and agriculture related applications, including e.g., urban plant monitoring, indirect measurements of the effects of climate change, and as an early indicator for water, soil, and air quality degradation.
    Lab on a Chip 02/2015; 15(7). DOI:10.1039/C4LC01279H · 5.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Wide field-of-view (FOV) and high-resolution imaging requires microscopy modalities to have large space-bandwidth products. Lensfree on-chip microscopy decouples resolution from FOV and can achieve a space-bandwidth product greater than one billion under unit magnification using state-of-the-art opto-electronic sensor chips and pixel super-resolution techniques. However, using vertical illumination, the effective numerical aperture (NA) that can be achieved with an on-chip microscope is limited by a poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at high spatial frequencies and imaging artifacts that arise as a result of the relatively narrow acceptance angles of the sensor's pixels. Here, we report, for the first time, a synthetic aperture-based on-chip microscope in which the illumination angle is scanned across the surface of a dome to increase the effective NA of the reconstructed lensfree image to 1.4, achieving e.g., ~250-nm resolution at 700-nm wavelength under unit magnification. This synthetic aperture approach not only represents the largest NA achieved to date using an on-chip microscope but also enables color imaging of connected tissue samples, such as pathology slides, by achieving robust phase recovery without the need for multi-height scanning or any prior information about the sample. To validate the effectiveness of this synthetic aperture-based, partially coherent, holographic on-chip microscope, we have successfully imaged color-stained cancer tissue slides as well as unstained Papanicolaou smears across a very large FOV of 20.5 mm2. This compact on-chip microscope based on a synthetic aperture approach could be useful for various applications in medicine, physical sciences and engineering that demand high-resolution wide-field imaging.
    Light: Science & Applications 03/2015; 4(3). DOI:10.1038/lsa.2015.34 · 8.48 Impact Factor


Available from