TIMP-4 and CD63: new prognostic biomarkers in human astrocytomas.
ABSTRACT Based on the molecular profiling of astrocytomas, we previously identified a series of genes involved in astrocytoma invasion. Of these, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4 (TIMP-4) was found to be overexpressed in pilocytic astrocytomas relative to diffuse astrocytomas of any histological grade. Although some data suggest that TIMP-4 may be an anti-tumoral actor in astrocytomas, recent findings challenge this concept. The present study aims to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic values of TIMP-4 and its putative partner CD63 in human astrocytomas. Tissue microarray and image analysis were first carried out to quantitatively analyze the immunohistochemical expression of these proteins in 471 gliomas including 354 astrocytomas. Pathological semi-quantitative scores of both markers' expression were then established and correlated to astrocytoma diagnosis and patient prognosis. TIMP-4 and CD63 expressions were both overexpressed in astrocytomas compared with oligodendrogliomas (P<0.001) and in pilocytic astrocytomas compared with grade II diffuse astrocytomas (P<0.001). In glioblastomas, high TIMP-4/CD63 co-expression scores were identified as independent prognostic factors associated with progression and shorter survival. In conclusion, this work provides the first evidence of a TIMP-4/CD63 association in astrocytoma tumor cells. It identifies TIMP-4 and CD63 as markers of the astrocytic phenotype in patients with gliomas. In addition, this work highlights the contribution of high TIMP-4/CD63 co-expression to the adverse outcomes of patients with glioblastomas.
- SourceAvailable from: Masaharu Isobe[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The melanoma-associated antigen ME491 is expressed strongly during the early stages of tumor progression. The ME491 gene was molecularly cloned by means of DNA-mediated gene transfer followed by screening a lambda genomic library with human repetitive Alu sequences as a probe. The cloned DNA, after transfection into mouse L-cells, generated a protein with characteristics that were indistinguishable in Western blot analysis from the ME491 antigen expressed by human melanoma cells. Repeat-free subfragments of the cloned DNA were used for further studies. By Northern blot analysis, the subfragments detected a single 1.2-kilobase mRNA in the transformants and various human melanoma cell lines. ME491 complementary DNA clones were then obtained by probing a melanoma complementary DNA library with the genomic subfragments. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the cloned complementary DNA indicated that the ME491 antigen consists of 237 amino acids (Mr 25,475) with four transmembrane regions and three putative N-glycosylation sites. No significant structural homology was observed with other proteins thus far reported. We observed that the amounts of mRNA varied greatly with different melanoma cell lines. Southern blot analysis revealed no amplification or rearrangement of the ME491 gene in the human melanoma cell lines tested, including both high and low expressors of this antigen. The ME491 gene has been mapped to chromosome region 12p12----12q13 by somatic cell hybrid analysis and more narrowly localized to 12q12----12q14 by in situ hybridization.Cancer Research 07/1988; 48(11):2955-62. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anaplastic oligodendroglioma (AO) and anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) are treated with surgery and radiotherapy (RT) at diagnosis, but they also respond to procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV), raising the possibility that early chemotherapy will improve survival. Furthermore, better outcomes in AO have been associated with 1p and 19q allelic loss. Patients with AO and AOA were randomly assigned to PCV chemotherapy followed by RT versus postoperative RT alone. The primary end point was overall survival. The status of 1p and 19q alleles was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Two hundred eighty-nine eligible patients were randomly assigned to either PCV plus RT (n = 147) or RT alone (n = 142). At progression, 80% of patients randomly assigned to RT had chemotherapy. With 3-year follow-up on most patients, the median survival times were similar (4.9 years after PCV plus RT v 4.7 years after RT alone; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.24; P = .26). Progression-free survival time favored PCV plus RT (2.6 years v 1.7 years for RT alone; HR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.91; P = .004), but 65% of patients experienced grade 3 or 4 toxicity, and one patient died. Patients with tumors lacking 1p and 19q (46%) compared with tumors not lacking 1p and 19q had longer median survival times (> 7 v 2.8 years, respectively; P < or = .001); longer progression-free survival was most apparent in this subset. For patients with AO and AOA, PCV plus RT does not prolong survival. Longer progression-free survival after PCV plus RT is associated with significant toxicity. Tumors lacking 1p and 19q alleles are less aggressive or more responsive or both.Journal of Clinical Oncology 06/2006; 24(18):2707-14. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although World Health Organization (WHO) grade I pilocytic astrocytomas and grade II diffuse astrocytomas have been classified for decades as different clinicopathologic entities, few, if any, data are available on the biologic features explaining these differences. Although more than 50 microarray-related studies have been carried out to characterize the molecular profiles of astrocytic tumors, we have identified only 11 that provide sound data on low-grade astrocytomas. We have incorporated these data into a comparative analysis for the purpose of identifying the most relevant molecular markers characterizing grade I pilocytic and grade II diffuse astrocytomas. Our analysis has identified various interesting genes that are differentially expressed in either grade I or grade II astrocytomas when compared with normal tissue and/or high-grade (WHO grade III and IV) astrocytomas. A large majority of these genes encode adhesion, extracellular matrix, and invasion-related proteins. Interestingly, a group of 6 genes (TIMP4, C1NH, CHAD, THBS4, IGFBP2, and TLE2) constitute an expression profile characteristic of grade I astrocytomas as compared with all other categories of tissue (normal brain, grade II, and high-grade astrocytomas). The end products (proteins) of these genes act as antimigratory compounds, a fact that could explain why pilocytic astrocytomas behave as compact (well-circumscribed) tumors as opposed to all the other astrocytic tumor types that diffusely invade the brain parenchyma. Having validated these molecular markers by means of real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, an integrated model was proposed illustrating how and why pilocytic astrocytomas constitute a distinct biologic and pathologic entity when compared with diffuse astrocytomas.Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 09/2006; 65(8):794-807. · 4.35 Impact Factor