Imaging Studies in Metastatic Urogenital Cancer Patients Undergoing Systemic Therapy: Recommendations of a Multidisciplinary Consensus Meeting of the Association of Urological Oncology of the German Cancer Society
Imaging studies are an integral and important diagnostic modality to stage, to monitor and follow-up patients with metastatic urogenital cancer. The currently available guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of urogenital cancer do not provide the clinician with evidence-based recommendations for daily practice.
To develop scientifically valid recommendations with regard to the most appropriate imaging technique and the most useful time interval in metastatic urogenital cancer patients undergoing systemic therapy.
A systematic literature review was performed searching MedLine, Embase and Web of Science databases using the terms prostate, renal cell, bladder and testis cancer in combination with the variables lymph node, lung, liver, bone metastases, chemotherapy and molecular therapy, and the search terms computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography were applied. A total of 11,834 records were retrieved from all databases. The panel reviewed the records to identify articles with the highest level of evidence using the recommendation of the US Agency for Health Care Policy and Research.
Contrast-enhanced computed tomography remains the standard imaging technique for monitoring of pulmonary, hepatic and lymph node metastases. Bone scintigraphy is still the most widely used imaging technique for the detection and follow-up of osseous lesions. For clinical trials it might be replaced by either PET-CT or MRI of the skeletal axis. Response assessment for patients treated with cytotoxic regime is best performed by the RECIST/WHO criteria; treatment response to molecular triggered therapy is best assessed by CT evaluating decrease in tumor size and density. Cross-sectional imaging studies for response assessment might be obtained after each 2 cycles of systemic therapy to early stratify responders from non-responders.
"Despite all the evidence that other imaging techniques might contribute more to early and accurate diagnosis of bone metastases, bone scan remains the initial staging test in most practices [7, 15]. The costs secondary to unnecessary diagnostic tests could be reduced if one test could accurately exclude metastases. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose. To determine whether axial MR imaging could replace bone scan as the primary staging test in newly diagnosed CaP. Material and Methods. We reviewed retrospectively all bone scans (n = 1201) performed in newly diagnosed CaP patients from 2000 to 2010 in a single tertiary academic center. We recorded patient age, ethnicity, PSA at diagnosis, TNM stage, Gleason score, alkaline phosphatase, bone scan results and axial imaging if available. Results. Mean patient age was 72 years (41-96), mean PSA and alkaline phosphatase were 268.9 ng/mL and 166 IU/L, respectively. Patients were divided in four groups according to possible bony metastases on bone scan. Group 1: Negative, no metastases demonstrated. Group 2: Positive, metastases only in pelvis and/or lumbar spine. Group 3: Positive, widespread metastases including pelvis and lumbar spine. Group 4: Positive, distant metastases without pelvic or lumbar spine abnormalities. Group 4 patients were analyzed in detail, two had possible disease that was detected only outside the pelvic and lumbar spine, unfortunately follow up images were insufficient to confirm the nature of the lesions. Conclusions. Although bone scan is a useful investigation to confirm and monitor metastasic CaP, our data suggests that axial MR imaging is an adequate primary staging study in untreated disease. Bone scan is unnecessary if CT or MRI of the pelvis and abdomen are clear of metastases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Space-time coding is a promising technique for high data-rate
wireless communications. We propose a flexible space-time turbo coding
scheme based on the serial concatenation of turbo TCM and generalized
delay diversity codes. It can achieve full diversity advantage for any
number of transmit antennas with various transmission rates. Simulation
results show that our codes can perform within 1.5 dB to 2 dB of outage
capacity on quasi-static fading channels
Info-tech and Info-net, 2001. Proceedings. ICII 2001 - Beijing. 2001 International Conferences on; 02/2001
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The evolution of urological imaging has had a major impact on the diagnosis and treatment of urological diseases since the discovery of the X-ray by Roentgen in 1895. Early developments included plain films of the abdomen, retrograde urographic techniques, development of contrast media, excretory urography, renal mass puncture, renal angiography, cystography and nuclear medicine procedures. These procedures led to the maturation of the specialties of diagnostic radiology and urology, and the development of the subspecialties of pediatric urology and urological radiology during the first seven decades of the 20th century. Subsequently, many imaging advances have occurred leading to changes in diagnosis and management of urological patients. Ultrasound and cross-sectional imaging technologies (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) are increasingly applied in urological evaluation, treatment and surveillance. Current developments include dual energy computed tomography, positron emission tomography computed tomography, renal donor and renal transplant imaging, prostate magnetic resonance imaging, and microbubble contrast enhanced ultrasound. Imaging advances will continue. It is the responsibility of all physicians to assess the advantages of new developments while weighing those advantages against the additional radiation exposure and the costs associated with new procedures.
International Journal of Urology 02/2011; 18(2):102-12. DOI:10.1111/j.1442-2042.2010.02677.x · 2.41 Impact Factor
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