Differential induction of CD38 expression by TNF-{alpha} in asthmatic airway smooth muscle cells.

Dept. of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, 55108, USA.
AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology (Impact Factor: 4.04). 12/2010; 299(6):L879-90. DOI: 10.1152/ajplung.00021.2010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity of CD38, a membrane protein expressed in human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, generates cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), a Ca²(+)-mobilizing agent. cADPR-mediated Ca²(+) responses to agonists are augmented in human ASM cells by TNF-α. CD38-deficient mice fail to develop airway hyperresponsiveness following intranasal TNF-α or IL-13 challenge, suggesting a role in asthma. The role of CD38 in human asthma remains unknown. We hypothesized that CD38 expression will be elevated in ASM cells from asthmatic donors (ASMA cells). CD38 mRNA and ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity were measured in cells maintained in growth-arrested conditions and exposed to vehicle or TNF-α (10-40 ng/ml). TNF-α-induced induction of CD38 expression was greater in ASMA than in ASM cells from nonasthmatic donors (ASMNA). In four of the six donors, basal and TNF-α-induced ERK and p38 MAPK activation were higher in ASMA than ASMNA cells. JNK MAPK activation was lower in ASMA than ASMNA cells. Nuclear NF-κB (p50 subunit) and phosphorylated c-Jun were comparable in cells from both groups, although nuclear c-Fos (part of the AP-1 complex) levels were lower in ASMA than ASMNA cells. NF-κB or AP-1 binding to their consensus sequences was comparable in ASMNA and ASMA cells, as are the decay kinetics of CD38 mRNA. The findings suggest that the differential induction of CD38 by TNF-α in ASMA cells is due to increased transcriptional regulation involving ERK and p38 MAPK activation and is independent of changes in NF-κB or AP-1 activation. The findings suggest a potential role for CD38 in the pathophysiology of asthma.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In addition to its role as a redox coenzyme, NAD is a substrate of various enzymes that split the molecule to either catalyze covalent modifications of target proteins or convert NAD into biologically active metabolites. The coenzyme bioavailability may be significantly affected by these reactions, with ensuing major impact on energy metabolism, cell survival, and aging. Moreover, through the activity of the NAD-dependent deacetylases sirtuins, NAD behaves as a beacon molecule that reports the cell metabolic state, and accordingly modulates transcriptional responses and metabolic adaptations. In this view, NAD biosynthesis emerges as a highly regulated process: it enables cells to preserve NAD homeostasis in response to significant NAD-consuming events and it can be modulated by various stimuli to induce, via NAD level changes, suitable NAD-mediated metabolic responses. Here we review the current knowledge on the regulation of mammalian NAD biosynthesis, with focus on the relevant rate-limiting enzymes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cofactor-dependent proteins: evolution, chemical diversity and bio-applications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins & Proteomics 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bbapap.2015.02.021 · 3.19 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Asthma is an inflammatory disease in which altered calcium regulation, contractility, and airway smooth muscle (ASM) proliferation contribute to airway hyper-responsiveness and airway wall remodeling. The enzymatic activity of CD38, a cell-surface protein expressed in human ASM cells, generates calcium mobilizing second messenger molecules such as cyclic ADP-ribose. CD38 expression in human ASM cells is augmented by cytokines (e.g., TNF-α) that requires the activation of MAP kinases and the transcription factors, NF-κB and AP-1, and is post-transcriptionally regulated by miR-140-3p and miR-708 by binding to 3' Untranslated Region of CD38 as well as by modulating the activation of signaling mechanisms involved in its regulation. Mice deficient in Cd38 exhibit reduced airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine relative to the response in wild-type mice. Intranasal challenge of Cd38-deficient mice with TNF-α or IL-13, or the environmental fungus Alternaria alternata, causes significantly attenuated methacholine responsiveness compared with wild-type mice, with comparable airway inflammation. Reciprocal bone marrow transfer studies revealed partial restoration of airway hyper-responsiveness to inhaled methacholine in the Cd38-deficient mice. These studies provide evidence for CD38 involvement in the development of airway hyper-responsiveness; a hallmark feature of asthma. Future studies aimed at drug discovery and delivery targeting CD38 expression and (or) activity are warranted.
    Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 12/2014; 93(2):1-9. DOI:10.1139/cjpp-2014-0410 · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract In spite of substantial advances in defining the immunobiology and function of structural cells in lung diseases there is still insufficient knowledge to develop fundamentally new classes of drugs to treat many lung diseases. For example, there is compelling need for new therapeutic approaches to address severe persistent asthma that is insensitive to inhaled corticosteroids. Although the prevalence of steroid-resistant asthma is 5-10%, severe asthmatics require a disproportionate level of health care spending and constitute a majority of fatal asthma episodes. None of the established drug therapies including long-acting beta agonists or inhaled corticosteroids reverse established airway remodeling. Obstructive airways remodeling in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), restrictive remodeling in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and occlusive vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension are similarly unresponsive to current drug therapy. Therefore, drugs are needed to achieve long-acting suppression and reversal of pathological airway and vascular remodeling. Novel drug classes are emerging from advances in epigenetics. Novel mechanisms are emerging by which cells adapt to environmental cues, which include changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and regulation of transcription and translation by noncoding RNAs. In this review we will summarize current epigenetic approaches being applied to preclinical drug development addressing important therapeutic challenges in lung diseases. These challenges are being addressed by advances in lung delivery of oligonucleotides and small molecules that modify the histone code, DNA methylation patterns and miRNA function.
    Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 01/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2014.11.006 · 7.75 Impact Factor