The ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity of CD38, a membrane protein expressed in human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, generates cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), a Ca²(+)-mobilizing agent. cADPR-mediated Ca²(+) responses to agonists are augmented in human ASM cells by TNF-α. CD38-deficient mice fail to develop airway hyperresponsiveness following intranasal TNF-α or IL-13 challenge, suggesting a role in asthma. The role of CD38 in human asthma remains unknown. We hypothesized that CD38 expression will be elevated in ASM cells from asthmatic donors (ASMA cells). CD38 mRNA and ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity were measured in cells maintained in growth-arrested conditions and exposed to vehicle or TNF-α (10-40 ng/ml). TNF-α-induced induction of CD38 expression was greater in ASMA than in ASM cells from nonasthmatic donors (ASMNA). In four of the six donors, basal and TNF-α-induced ERK and p38 MAPK activation were higher in ASMA than ASMNA cells. JNK MAPK activation was lower in ASMA than ASMNA cells. Nuclear NF-κB (p50 subunit) and phosphorylated c-Jun were comparable in cells from both groups, although nuclear c-Fos (part of the AP-1 complex) levels were lower in ASMA than ASMNA cells. NF-κB or AP-1 binding to their consensus sequences was comparable in ASMNA and ASMA cells, as are the decay kinetics of CD38 mRNA. The findings suggest that the differential induction of CD38 by TNF-α in ASMA cells is due to increased transcriptional regulation involving ERK and p38 MAPK activation and is independent of changes in NF-κB or AP-1 activation. The findings suggest a potential role for CD38 in the pathophysiology of asthma.
"The levels of expression of kinases upstream of ERK as well as the MAP kinase phosphatase-1 are comparable in cells from asthmatics and nonasthmatics . Precisely how a higher level of activation of these MAP kinases is maintained in the asthmatic ASM cells is not entirely clear. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD38 is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed in airway smooth muscle cells. The enzymatic activity of CD38 generates cyclic ADP-ribose from β-NAD. Cyclic ADP-ribose mobilizes intracellular calcium during activation of airway smooth muscle cells by G-protein-coupled receptors through activation of ryanodine receptor channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Inflammatory cytokines that are implicated in asthma upregulate CD38 expression and increase the calcium responses to contractile agonists in airway smooth muscle cells. The augmented intracellular calcium responses following cytokine exposure of airway smooth muscle cells are inhibited by an antagonist of cyclic ADP-ribose. Airway smooth muscle cells from CD38 knockout mice exhibit attenuated intracellular calcium responses to agonists, and these mice have reduced airway response to inhaled methacholine. CD38 also contributes to airway hyperresponsiveness as shown in mouse models of allergen or cytokine-induced inflammatory airway disease. In airway smooth muscle cells obtained from asthmatics, the cytokine-induced CD38 expression is significantly enhanced compared to expression in cells from nonasthmatics. This differential induction of CD38 expression in asthmatic airway smooth muscle cells stems from increased activation of MAP kinases and transcription through NF-κB, and altered post-transcriptional regulation through microRNAs. We propose that increased capacity for CD38 signaling in airway smooth muscle in asthma contributes to airway hyperresponsiveness.
Journal of Allergy 11/2012; 2012:289468. DOI:10.1155/2012/289468
"The ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity of primary astrocyte lysates was quantified using a fluorescent cycling assay that measures the production of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) from cADPR and nicotinamide as described in . Briefly, cells were harvested in Tris-sucrose buffer (pH 7.2) with protease inhibitors. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV)-1 leads to some form of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in approximately half of the cases. The mechanisms by which astrocytes contribute to HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD), the most severe form of HAND, still remain unresolved. HIV-1-encephalitis (HIVE), a pathological correlate of HAD, affects an estimated 9-11% of the HIV-1-infected population. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that HIVE brain tissues show significant upregulation of CD38, an enzyme involved in calcium signaling, in astrocytes. We also reported an increase in CD38 expression in interleukin (IL)-1β-activated astrocytes. In the present investigation, we studied regulatory mechanisms of CD38 gene expression in astrocytes activated with HIV-1-relevant stimuli. We also investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB in astrocyte CD38 regulation.
Cultured human astrocytes were transfected with HIV-1(YU-2) proviral clone and levels of CD38 mRNA and protein were measured by real-time PCR gene expression assay, western blot analysis and immunostaining. Astrocyte activation by viral transfection was determined by analyzing proinflammatory chemokine levels using ELISA. To evaluate the roles of MAPKs and NF-κB in CD38 regulation, astrocytes were treated with MAPK inhibitors (SB203580, SP600125, U0126), NF-κB interfering peptide (SN50) or transfected with dominant negative IκBα mutant (IκBαM) prior to IL-1β activation. CD38 gene expression and CD38 ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity assays were performed to analyze alterations in CD38 levels and function, respectively.
HIV-1(YU-2)-transfection significantly increased CD38 mRNA and protein expression in astrocytes (p < 0.01) in a dose-dependent manner and induced astrocyte activation. IL-β-activation of HIV-1(YU-2)-transfected astrocytes significantly increased HIV-1 gene expression (p < 0.001). Treatment with MAPK inhibitors or NF-κB inhibitor SN50 abrogated IL-1β-induced CD38 expression and activity in astrocytes without altering basal CD38 levels (p < 0.001). IκBαM transfection also significantly inhibited IL-1β-mediated increases in CD38 expression and activity in astrocytes (p < 0.001).
The present findings demonstrate a direct involvement of HIV-1 and virus-induced proinflammatory stimuli in regulating astrocyte-CD38 levels. HIV-1(YU-2)-transfection effectively induced HIV-1p24 protein expression and activated astrocytes to upregulate CCL2, CXCL8 and CD38. In astrocytes, IL-1β-induced increases in CD38 levels were regulated through the MAPK signaling pathway and by the transcription factor NF-κB. Future studies may be directed towards understanding the role of CD38 in response to infection and thus its role in HAND.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 10/2011; 8(1):145. DOI:10.1186/1742-2094-8-145 · 5.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Airway smooth muscle (ASM) manifests a hyper-responsive phenotype in airway disorders such as asthma. ASM also modulates immune responses by secreting mediators and expressing cell-surface molecules that promote recruitment of inflammatory cells to the lungs. The aim of the current article is to highlight therapeutics that may modulate ASM responses in airway disorders and exacerbations.
Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine 12/2011; 5(6):767-77. DOI:10.1586/ers.11.77
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