Regeneration of the articular surface of the rabbit synovial joint by cell homing: a proof of concept study.
ABSTRACT A common approach for tissue regeneration is cell delivery, for example by direct transplantation of stem or progenitor cells. An alternative, by recruitment of endogenous cells, needs experimental evidence. We tested the hypothesis that the articular surface of the synovial joint can regenerate with a biological cue spatially embedded in an anatomically correct bioscaffold.
In this proof of concept study, the surface morphology of a rabbit proximal humeral joint was captured with laser scanning and reconstructed by computer-aided design. We fabricated an anatomically correct bioscaffold using a composite of poly-epsilon-caprolactone and hydroxyapatite. The entire articular surface of unilateral proximal humeral condyles of skeletally mature rabbits was surgically excised and replaced with bioscaffolds spatially infused with transforming growth factor beta3 (TGFbeta3)-adsorbed or TGFbeta3-free collagen hydrogel. Locomotion and weightbearing were assessed 1-2, 3-4, and 5-8 weeks after surgery. At 4 months, regenerated cartilage samples were retrieved from in vivo and assessed for surface fissure, thickness, density, chondrocyte numbers, collagen type II and aggrecan, and mechanical properties.
Ten rabbits received TGFbeta3-infused bioscaffolds, ten received TGFbeta3-free bioscaffolds, and three rabbits underwent humeral-head excision without bioscaffold replacement. All animals in the TGFbeta3-delivery group fully resumed weightbearing and locomotion 3-4 weeks after surgery, more consistently than those in the TGFbeta3-free group. Defect-only rabbits limped at all times. 4 months after surgery, TGFbeta3-infused bioscaffolds were fully covered with hyaline cartilage in the articular surface. TGFbeta3-free bioscaffolds had only isolated cartilage formation, and no cartilage formation occurred in defect-only rabbits. TGFbeta3 delivery yielded uniformly distributed chondrocytes in a matrix with collagen type II and aggrecan and had significantly greater thickness (p=0.044) and density (p<0.0001) than did cartilage formed without TGFbeta3. Compressive and shear properties of TGFbeta3-mediated articular cartilage did not differ from those of native articular cartilage, and were significantly greater than those of cartilage formed without TGFbeta3. Regenerated cartilage was avascular and integrated with regenerated subchondral bone that had well defined blood vessels. TGFbeta3 delivery recruited roughly 130% more cells in the regenerated articular cartilage than did spontaneous cell migration without TGFbeta3.
Our findings suggest that the entire articular surface of the synovial joint can regenerate without cell transplantation. Regeneration of complex tissues is probable by homing of endogenous cells, as exemplified by stratified avascular cartilage and vascularised bone. Whether cell homing acts as an adjunctive or alternative approach of cell delivery for regeneration of tissues with different organisational complexity warrants further investigation.
New York State Stem Cell Science; US National Institutes of Health.
Article: Stem cell recruitment and angiogenesis of neuropeptide substance P coupled with self-assembling peptide nanofiber in a mouse hind limb ischemia model.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: For the successful treatment of ischemia, it is important to resupply sufficient blood into ischemic regions by inducing angiogenesis. Many stem cell transplantation studies have been reported to enhance angiogenesis, especially those relating to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); however cell transplantation has a number of limitations, such as the low rate of cell survival and donor cell shortage. In this study, we developed bioactive peptides by immobilizing substance P into self-assembling peptides, and their MSCs recruiting ability and therapeutic effects were evaluated by using ischemic hind limb models. Limb ischemia was produced in athymic mice, and 1% (wt/vol) peptides were injected into ischemic sites (n = 6 in each group: ischemia, substance P, RADA16-II, RADA16-II + substance P, and RADA16-II + RADA-SP (bioactive peptides)). The tissues were harvested for histological analysis and tissue perfusion measurement at 1, 3, 7, and 28 days after injection. We observed that bioactive peptides assembled themselves (<10 nm nanofibers) and formed 3-dimensional (3D) microenvironments within ischemic regions. In the animal study, it was observed that by applying bioactive peptides, substance P continued to be released at 28 days, and consequently, MSCs were successfully recruited into ischemic regions. Bioactive peptides could prevent fibrosis, promote neovascularization, enhance tissue perfusion, and prevent limb salvages. Our results demonstrated that bioactive peptides are one of the most powerful tools for the treatment of ischemia, through their recruitment of autologous MSCs and promotion of angiogenesis without cells transplantation.Biomaterials 11/2012; · 7.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Regeneration of bone-ligament complexes destroyed due to disease or injury is a clinical challenge due to complex topologies and tissue integration required for functional restoration. Attempts to reconstruct soft-hard tissue interfaces have met with limited clinical success. In this investigation, we manufactured biomimetic fiber-guiding scaffolds using solid free-form fabrication methods that custom fit complex anatomical defects to guide functionally-oriented ligamentous fibers in vivo. Compared to traditional, amorphous or random-porous polymeric scaffolds, the use of perpendicularly oriented micro-channels provides better guidance for cellular processes anchoring ligaments between two distinct mineralized structures. These structures withstood biomechanical loading to restore large osseous defects. Cell transplantation using hybrid scaffolding constructs with guidance channels resulted in predictable oriented fiber architecture, greater control of tissue infiltration, and better organization of ligament interface than random scaffold architectures. These findings demonstrate that fiber-guiding scaffolds drive neogenesis of triphasic bone-ligament integration for a variety of clinical scenarios.Biomaterials 01/2012; 33(1):137-45. · 7.40 Impact Factor
Article: Interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 and integrative meniscal repair: influences on meniscal cell proliferation and migration.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are up-regulated in injured and osteoarthritic knee joints. IL-1 and TNF-α inhibit integrative meniscal repair; however, the mechanisms by which this inhibition occurs are not fully understood. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) increases meniscal cell proliferation and accumulation, and enhances integrative meniscal repair. An improved understanding of the mechanisms modulating meniscal cell proliferation and migration will help to improve approaches for enhancing intrinsic or tissue-engineered repair of the meniscus. The goal of this study was to examine the hypothesis that IL-1 and TNF-α suppress, while TGF-β1 enhances, cellular proliferation and migration in cell and tissue models of meniscal repair. A micro-wound assay was used to assess meniscal cell migration and proliferation in response to the following treatments for 0, 24, or 48 hours: 0 to 10 ng/mL IL-1, TNF-α, or TGF-β1, in the presence or absence of 10% serum. Proliferated and total cells were fluorescently labeled and imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy and the number of proliferated, migrated, and total cells was determined in the micro-wound and edges of each image. Meniscal cell proliferation was also assessed throughout meniscal repair model explants treated with 0 or 10 ng/mL IL-1, TNF-α, or TGF-β1 for 14 days. At the end of the culture period, biomechanical testing and histological analyses were also performed. Statistical differences were assessed using an ANOVA and Newman-Keuls post hoc test. IL-1 and TNF-α decreased cell proliferation in both cell and tissue models of meniscal repair. In the presence of serum, TGF-β1 increased outer zone cell proliferation in the micro-wound and in the cross section of meniscal repair model explants. Both IL-1 and TNF-α decreased the integrative shear strength of repair and extracellular matrix deposition in the meniscal repair model system, while TGF-β1 had no effect on either measure. Meniscal cell proliferation in vivo may be diminished following joint injury due to the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines, thereby limiting native cellular repair of meniscal lesions. Therefore, therapies that can promote meniscal cell proliferation have promise to enhance meniscal repair and improve tissue engineering strategies.Arthritis research & therapy 11/2011; 13(6):R187. · 4.27 Impact Factor