Induction of insulin-producing cells from human pancreatic progenitor cells.
ABSTRACT We previously established a mouse pancreatic stem cell line without genetic manipulation. In this study, we sought to identify and isolate human pancreatic stem/progenitor cells. We also tested whether growth factors and protein transduction of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1 (PDX-1) and BETA2/NeuroD into human pancreatic stem/progenitor cells induced insulin or pancreas-related gene expressions.
Human pancreata from brain-dead donors were used for islet isolation with the standard Ricordi technique modified by the Edmonton protocol. The cells from a duct-rich population were cultured in several media, based on those designed for mouse pancreatic or for human embryonic stem cells. To induce cell differentiation, cells were cultured for 2 weeks with exendin-4, nicotinamide, keratinocyte growth factor, PDX-1 protein, or BETA2/NeuroD protein.
The cells in serum-free media showed morphologies similar to a mouse pancreatic stem cell line, while the cells in the medium for human embryonic stem cells formed fibroblast-like morphologies. The nucleus/cytoplasm ratios of the cells in each culture medium decreased during the culture. The cells stopped dividing after 30 days, suggesting that they had entered senescence. The cells treated with induction medium differentiated into insulin-producing cells, expressing pancreas-related genes.
Duplications of cells from a duct-rich population were limited. Induction therapy with several growth factors and transduction proteins might provide a potential new strategy for induction of transplantable insulin-producing cells.
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ABSTRACT: Duct cells of the pancreas are thought to include latent progenitors of islet endocrine cells that can be induced to differentiate by appropriate morphogens. Here we developed a method for isolating pancreatic ductal epithelial cells from adult mice that overcomes the shortcomings of previous methods. Pancreatic ductal cells were grown in serum-free DMEM/F12 medium in the presence of cholera toxin or 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate, which is known to be an intracellular cAMP generator. Single cell cloning was performed by limiting dilution in serum-free medium. The isolated clonal cells expressed high levels of cytokeratin and Ipf1 (formerly known as Pdx-1). Adenovirus-mediated expression of ngn3 (also known as Neurog3) and Ptf1a in these cells induced expression of insulin and somatostatin, and of carboxypeptidase A, respectively. Furthermore, albumin production was induced by dexamethasone or by long-term culture in serum-containing medium. Stimulation of the cAMP-dependent signalling allowed us to isolate clonal pancreatic ductal cells from adult mice. These cells are able to partially differentiate into endocrine cells, exocrine cells and hepatocyte-like cells and are therefore considered to have the characteristics of endodermal progenitor cells.Diabetologia 11/2006; 49(10):2359-67. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Calcineurin inhibitors such as cyclosporine A and FK506 have been used for transplant therapy and treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, the inhibition of calcineurin outside the immune system has a number of side effects, including hyperglycemia. In the search for safer drugs, we developed a cell-permeable inhibitor of NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) using the polyarginine peptide delivery system. This peptide provided immunosuppression for fully mismatched islet allografts in mice. In addition, it did not affect insulin secretion, whereas FK506 caused a dose-dependent decrease in insulin secretion. Cell-permeable peptides can thus provide a new strategy for drug development and may eventually be useful clinically.Nature Medicine 04/2004; 10(3):305-9. · 22.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Current success of islet transplantation has led to donor shortage and the need for marginal donor utilization to alleviate this shortage. The goal of this study was to improve the efficacy of islet transplantation using nonheartbeating donors (NHBDs). First, we used porcine pancreata for the implementation of several strategies and applied to human pancreata. These strategies included ductal injection with trypsin inhibitor for protection of pancreatic ducts, ET-Kyoto solution for pancreas preservation, and Iodixanol for islet purification. These strategies significantly improved both porcine and human islet isolation efficacy. Average 399,469+/-36,411 IE human islets were obtained from NHBDs (n=13). All islet preparations met transplantation criteria and 11 out of 13 cases (85%) were transplanted into six type 1 diabetic patients for the first time in Japan. All islets started to secrete insulin and all patients showed better blood glucose control without hypoglycemic loss of consciousness. The average HbA1c levels of the six recipients significantly improved from 7.5+/-0.4% at transplant to 5.1+/-0.2% currently (P<0.0003). The average insulin amounts of the six recipients significantly reduced from 49.2+/-3.3 units at transplant to 11+/-4.4 units (P<0.0005) and five out of six patients reduced to less than half dose. The first patient is now insulin free, the first such case in Japan. This demonstrates that our current protocol makes it feasible to use NHBDs for islet transplant into type 1 diabetic patients efficiently.Transplantation 08/2006; 82(4):460-5. · 3.78 Impact Factor