We previously established a mouse pancreatic stem cell line without genetic manipulation. In this study, we sought to identify and isolate human pancreatic stem/progenitor cells. We also tested whether growth factors and protein transduction of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1 (PDX-1) and BETA2/NeuroD into human pancreatic stem/progenitor cells induced insulin or pancreas-related gene expressions.
Human pancreata from brain-dead donors were used for islet isolation with the standard Ricordi technique modified by the Edmonton protocol. The cells from a duct-rich population were cultured in several media, based on those designed for mouse pancreatic or for human embryonic stem cells. To induce cell differentiation, cells were cultured for 2 weeks with exendin-4, nicotinamide, keratinocyte growth factor, PDX-1 protein, or BETA2/NeuroD protein.
The cells in serum-free media showed morphologies similar to a mouse pancreatic stem cell line, while the cells in the medium for human embryonic stem cells formed fibroblast-like morphologies. The nucleus/cytoplasm ratios of the cells in each culture medium decreased during the culture. The cells stopped dividing after 30 days, suggesting that they had entered senescence. The cells treated with induction medium differentiated into insulin-producing cells, expressing pancreas-related genes.
Duplications of cells from a duct-rich population were limited. Induction therapy with several growth factors and transduction proteins might provide a potential new strategy for induction of transplantable insulin-producing cells.
"Another research team showed that the production of new beta cells was dependent on the gene neurogenin 3 (Ngn3), which plays a role in the pancreas during embryonic development, and successfully isolated and established a murine pancreatic stem cell line (Noguchi et al., 2008; 2009). Human pancreatic stem cells have also been successfully differentiated into IPCs (Noguchi et al., 2010). Islet cells were isolated from the pancreases of human donors using the Ricordi technique modified by the Edmonton protocol. "
"Although Edmonton protocol for islet transplantation is the most preferred therapy available for type 1 diabetes, a major obstacle with this therapy is the limited supply of cadaveric donor islets in retention to the high demand of eligible patients and the need for lifetime immunosuppressant –. Recent studies have demonstrated that Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) –, Induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSs) , , and adult stem cells like bone marrow (BM) , pancreas , , liver , umbilical cord blood , Wharton's jelly , placenta , could be differentiate into insulin producing cells. ESCs have tremendous pluripotency, however, ethical/legal issues and risks of teratoma formation limit its use in translational medicine. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is caused by auto immune destruction of insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas. Currently available treatments include transplantation of isolated islets from donor pancreas to the patient. However, this method is limited by inadequate means of immuno-suppression to prevent islet rejection and importantly, limited supply of islets for transplantation. Autologous adult stem cells are now considered for cell replacement therapy in diabetes as it has the potential to generate neo-islets which are genetically part of the treated individual. Adopting methods of islet encapsulation in immuno-isolatory devices would eliminate the need for immuno-suppressants.
In the present study we explore the potential of human adipose tissue derived adult stem cells (h-ASCs) to differentiate into functional islet like cell aggregates (ICAs). Our stage specific differentiation protocol permit the conversion of mesodermic h-ASCs to definitive endoderm (Hnf3β, TCF2 and Sox17) and to PDX1, Ngn3, NeuroD, Pax4 positive pancreatic endoderm which further matures in vitro to secrete insulin. These ICAs are shown to produce human C-peptide in a glucose dependent manner exhibiting in-vitro functionality. Transplantation of mature ICAs, packed in immuno-isolatory biocompatible capsules to STZ induced diabetic mice restored near normoglycemia within 3-4 weeks. The detection of human C-peptide, 1155±165 pM in blood serum of experimental mice demonstrate the efficacy of our differentiation approach.
h-ASC is an ideal population of personal stem cells for cell replacement therapy, given that they are abundant, easily available and autologous in origin. Our findings present evidence that h-ASCs could be induced to differentiate into physiologically competent functional islet like cell aggregates, which may provide as a source of alternative islets for cell replacement therapy in type 1 diabetes.
PLoS ONE 06/2011; 6(6):e20615. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0020615 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic duct cells are considered a potential source of β-cell regeneration, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been suggested to perform an important role in these processes, but the underlying mechanism of the signal pathways, especially in humans, remains poorly understood. To evaluate the role of TGF-β1, pancreatic duct cells were isolated from three brain-dead organ donors. Pancreatic cell clusters harvested after islet isolation were dispersed to single cells and cultured in monolayers, then treated with TGF-β1. We analyzed the characteristics of the cultured cells, the TGF-β1 intracellular signaling pathway, the proliferation, and transdifferentiation rates of the duct cells. We also evaluated the genes and protein expression patterns after TGF-β1 treatment. After TGF-β1 treatment, typical morphologic changes representative of EMT were observed and Erk1/2, JNK, and AKT phosphorylation, Ras downstream effectors, were increased. β cell-specific transcription factors including PDX-1, Beta2/NeuroD, Ist-1, and NGN3 were markedly suppressed and the rate of transdifferentiation into β cells was also suppressed. Genomic and proteomic analyses suggested that TGF-β1 induces marked changes in a variety of structural genes and proteins associated with EMT. In conclusion, TGF-β1 induces EMT in cultured human pancreatic duct cells, but suppresses its proliferation and transdifferentiation into β cells. Our results are the first report of TGF-β1 effects for EMT and ductal cell transdifferentiation and proliferation at the protein level in human pancreatic duct cells.
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