Induction of Insulin-Producing Cells From Human Pancreatic Progenitor Cells
ABSTRACT We previously established a mouse pancreatic stem cell line without genetic manipulation. In this study, we sought to identify and isolate human pancreatic stem/progenitor cells. We also tested whether growth factors and protein transduction of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1 (PDX-1) and BETA2/NeuroD into human pancreatic stem/progenitor cells induced insulin or pancreas-related gene expressions.
Human pancreata from brain-dead donors were used for islet isolation with the standard Ricordi technique modified by the Edmonton protocol. The cells from a duct-rich population were cultured in several media, based on those designed for mouse pancreatic or for human embryonic stem cells. To induce cell differentiation, cells were cultured for 2 weeks with exendin-4, nicotinamide, keratinocyte growth factor, PDX-1 protein, or BETA2/NeuroD protein.
The cells in serum-free media showed morphologies similar to a mouse pancreatic stem cell line, while the cells in the medium for human embryonic stem cells formed fibroblast-like morphologies. The nucleus/cytoplasm ratios of the cells in each culture medium decreased during the culture. The cells stopped dividing after 30 days, suggesting that they had entered senescence. The cells treated with induction medium differentiated into insulin-producing cells, expressing pancreas-related genes.
Duplications of cells from a duct-rich population were limited. Induction therapy with several growth factors and transduction proteins might provide a potential new strategy for induction of transplantable insulin-producing cells.
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ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus remains a major burden. More than 200 million people are affected worldwide, which represents 6% of the world's population. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease, which induces the permanent destruction of the β-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Although intensive insulin therapy has proven effective to delay and sometimes prevent the progression of complications such as nephropathy, neuropathy or retinopathy, it is difficult to achieve and maintain long term in most subjects. The successes achieved over the last few decades by the transplantation of whole pancreas and isolated islets suggest that diabetes can be cured by the replenishment of deficient β cells. However, islet transplantation efforts have various limitations, including the limited supply of donor pancreata, the paucity of experienced islet isolation teams, side effects of immunosuppressants and poor long term results. The purpose of this article is to review the recent progress in clinical islet transplantation for the treatment of diabetes and to describe the recent progress on pancreatic stem/progenitor cell research, which has opened up several possibilities for the development of new treatments for diabetes.12/2011; 1(1):13-18. DOI:10.5500/wjt.v1.i1.13
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ABSTRACT: We showed previously that proliferating human islet-derived de-differentiated cells (DIDs) exhibit many characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells. Dispersed DIDs can be induced by serum deprivation to undergo mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and aggregate into epithelial cell clusters (ECCs). Conversely, ECCs can be induced to disperse and undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by re-addition of mammalian sera. In this study, we show that platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) mimics and mediates serum-induced ECCs' dispersal accompanied by accumulation of cytoplasmic β-catenin and a decrease in the levels of insulin and glucagon mRNAs. Moreover, we show that PDGF-BB-induced dispersal of ECCs is a more general phenomenon that occurs also with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and dermal fibroblasts (DFs). In DIDs, BM-MSCs and DFs, PDGF decreased the levels of DKK1 mRNA, suggesting involvement of the Wnt signaling pathway. PDGF-BB stimulated a significant increase in S473 phosphorylation of Akt and the PI3K specific inhibitor (PIP828) partially inhibited PDGF-BB-induced ECC dispersal. Lastly, the PDGF-receptor (PDGF-R) antagonist JNJ-10198409 inhibited both PDGF-BB - and serum-induced ECC dispersal. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), which shares most of the PDGF signaling pathway, did not induce dispersal and only weakly stimulated Akt phosphorylation. Our data suggest that PDGF-BB mediates serum-induced DIDs dispersal, correlated with the activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Cellular Physiology 06/2014; 229(6). DOI:10.1002/jcp.24493 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have sought to identify diabetes mellitus treatment strategies with fewer side effects. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy was previously considered as a promising therapy; however, it requires the cells to be trans-differentiated into cells of the pancreatic-endocrine lineage before transplantation. Previous studies have shown that PDX-1 expression can facilitate MSC differentiation into insulin-producing cells (IPCs), but the methods employed to date use viral or DNA-based tools to express PDX-1, with the associated risks of insertional mutation and immunogenicity. Thus, this study aimed to establish a new method to induce PDX-1 expression in MSCs by mRNA transfection. MSCs were isolated from human umbilical cord blood and expanded in vitro, with stemness confirmed by surface markers and multipotentiality. MSCs were transfected with PDX-1 mRNA by nucleofection and chemically induced to differentiate into IPCs (combinatorial group). This IPC differentiation was then compared with that of untransfected chemically induced cells (inducer group) and uninduced cells (control group). We found that PDX-1 mRNA transfection significantly improved the differentiation of MSCs into IPCs, with 8.3±2.5% IPCs in the combinatorial group, 3.21±2.11% in the inducer group and 0% in the control. Cells in the combinatorial group also strongly expressed several genes related to beta cells (Pdx-1, Ngn3, Nkx6.1 and insulin) and could produce C-peptide in the cytoplasm and insulin in the supernatant, which was dependent on the extracellular glucose concentration. These results indicate that PDX-1 mRNA may offer a promising approach to produce safe IPCs for clinical diabetes mellitus treatment.Differentiation 09/2014; 87(5). DOI:10.1016/j.diff.2014.08.001 · 2.84 Impact Factor