Vitamin D receptor haplotypes affect lead levels during pregnancy.
ABSTRACT Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to toxic effects associated with lead (Pb) exposure. Pb accumulates in bone tissue and is rapidly mobilized from bones during pregnancy, thus resulting in fetal contamination. While vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms modify bone mineralization and affect Pb biomarkers including blood (Pb-B) and serum (Pb-S) Pb concentrations, and %Pb-S/Pb-B ratio, the effects of these polymorphisms on Pb levels in pregnant women are unknown. This study aimed at examining the effects of three (FokI, BsmI and ApaI) VDR polymorphisms (and VDR haplotypes) on Pb levels in pregnant women. Pb-B and Pb-S were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in samples from 256 healthy pregnant women and their respective umbilical cords. Genotypes for the VDR polymorphisms were determined by PCR and restriction fragment length digestion. While the three VDR polymorphisms had no significant effects on Pb-B, Pb-S or %Pb-S/Pb-B ratio, the haplotype combining the f, a, and b alleles for the FokI, ApaI and BsmI polymorphisms, respectively, was associated with significantly lower Pb-S and %Pb-S/Pb-B (P<0.05). However, maternal VDR haplotypes had no effects on Pb levels in the umbilical cords. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that a combination of genetic polymorphisms (haplotype) commonly found in the VDR gene affects Pb-S and %Pb-S/Pb-B ratios in pregnant women. These findings may have major implications for Pb toxicity because they may help to predict the existence of a group of subjects that is genetically less prone to Pb toxicity during pregnancy.
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ABSTRACT: Several recent investigations have reported high concentrations of lead in samples of minced cervid meat. This paper describes findings from a Norwegian study performed in 2012 among 147 adults with a wide range of cervid game consumption. The main aim was to assess whether high consumption of lead-shot cervid meat is associated with increased concentration of lead in blood. A second aim was to investigate to what extent factors apart from game consumption explain observed variability in blood lead levels. Median (5 and 95 percentile) blood concentration of lead was 16.6µg/L (7.5 and 39µg/L). An optimal multivariate linear regression model for log-transformed blood lead indicated that cervid game meat consumption once a month or more was associated with approximately 31% increase in blood lead concentrations. The increase seemed to be mostly associated with consumption of minced cervid meat, particularly purchased minced meat. However, many participants with high and long-lasting game meat intake had low blood lead concentrations. Cervid meat together with number of bullet shots per year, years with game consumption, self-assembly of bullets, wine consumption and smoking jointly accounted for approximately 25% of the variation in blood lead concentrations, while age and sex accounted for 27% of the variance. Blood lead concentrations increased approximately 18% per decade of age, and men had on average 30% higher blood lead concentrations than women. Hunters who assembled their own ammunition had 52% higher blood lead concentrations than persons not making ammunition. In conjunction with minced cervid meat, wine intake was significantly associated with increased blood lead. Our results indicate that hunting practices such as use of lead-based ammunition, self-assembling of lead containing bullets and inclusion of lead-contaminated meat for mincing to a large extent determine the exposure to lead from cervid game consumption.Environmental Research 10/2013; · 3.24 Impact Factor