Adrenal α2-adrenergic receptors in the aging normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rat
ABSTRACT This study investigates α(2)-adrenergic receptor (α(2)AR) mediated feedback inhibition of catecholamine release from the adrenal medulla of adult (52 weeks) and old (98 weeks) spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive controls Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Adrenal epinephrine content as well as the spontaneous and the nicotinic-evoked release of epinephrine were similar between adult SHR and WKY rats. Aging produced a significant reduction in epinephrine synthesis in WKY rats. In contrast, in SHR aging produced a significant increase in epinephrine release without significant changes in epinephrine synthesis. The α(2)AR agonist medetomidine abolished (80-90% inhibition) the nicotinic-evoked release of epinephrine in adult SHR and WKY rats. With aging, this effect was unaltered in WKY rats but was significantly decreased in SHR (30% inhibition). Adrenal α(2A)AR mRNA levels were significantly reduced in old SHR compared with age matched WKY rats. In conclusion, in aging the α(2)AR mediated feedback inhibition of epinephrine release from the adrenal medulla is preserved in WKY rats but compromised in SHR, resulting in increased epinephrine release.
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ABSTRACT: L-arginine and its decarboxylated product, agmatine are important mediators of NO production and vascular relaxation. However, the underlying mechanisms of their action are not understood. We have investigated the role of arginine and agmatine in resistance vessel relaxation of Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats. Second or 3(rd)-order mesenteric arterioles were cannulated in an organ chamber, pressurized and equilibrated before perfusing intraluminally with agonists. The vessel diameters were measured after mounting on the stage of a microscope fitted with a video camera. The gene expression in Dahl rat vessel homogenates was ascertained by real-time PCR. L-arginine initiated relaxations (EC50, 5.8 ± 0.7 mM; n = 9) were inhibited by arginine decarboxylase (ADC) inhibitor, difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) (EC50, 18.3 ± 1.3 mM; n = 5) suggesting that arginine-induced vessel relaxation was mediated by agmatine formation. Agmatine relaxed the SD rat vessels at significantly lower concentrations (EC50, 138.7 ± 12.1 μM; n = 22), which was compromised by L-NAME (L-N(G)-Nitroarginine methyl ester, an eNOS inhibitor), RX821002 (α-2 AR antagonist) and pertussis toxin (G-protein inhibitor). The agmatine-mediated vessel relaxation from high salt Dahl rats was abolished as compared to that from normal salt rats (EC50, 143.9 ± 23.4 μM; n = 5). The α-2A AR, α-2B AR and eNOS mRNA expression was downregulated in mesenteric arterioles of high-salt treated Dahl hypertensive rats. These findings demonstrate that agmatine facilitated the relaxation via activation of α-2 adrenergic G-protein coupled receptor and NO synthesis, and this pathway is compromised in salt-sensitive hypertension.Nitric Oxide 08/2013; 35. DOI:10.1016/j.niox.2013.08.005 · 3.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this study, we evaluated the effect of α(2) -adrenoceptor activation on catecholamine release from the adrenal medulla of pre-hypertensive (6-week-old) and hypertensive (16-week-old) spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and of age-matched normotensive control Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Catecholamine overflow from isolated adrenal medullae was evoked by the nicotinic receptor agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP) in the absence and presence of the α(2) -adrenoceptor agonist medetomidine (MED). The spontaneous outflow of adrenaline was similar between age-matched SHR and WKY rats. However, the spontaneous outflow of noradrenaline was significantly lower in SHR compared with age-matched WKY rats. DMPP (0.1-3 mM) increased the outflow of noradrenaline and adrenaline in a concentration-dependent manner. The E(max) values for adrenaline overflow were similar between strains, but the E(max) values for noradrenaline overflow were significantly lower in SHR. The EC(50) values for noradrenaline and adrenaline overflow were significantly higher in SHR compared with age-matched WKY rats. MED (0.1-300 nM) reduced the DMPP-evoked overflow (DMPP 500 μM) of noradrenaline and adrenaline in a concentration-dependent manner and was capable of totally inhibiting this effect. The inhibitory action of MED was similar between age-matched SHR and WKY rats. In the adrenals, the α(2A)- and α(2B)-adrenoceptor subtypes had the highest mRNA expression levels; the α(2C)-adrenoceptor subtype had the lowest mRNA expression levels. The mRNA levels for the three subtypes were similar between strains. In conclusion, in SHR during the development of hypertension, adrenal α(2) -adrenoceptor inhibitory function is conserved, accompanied by reduced noradrenaline release and unchanged adrenaline release.Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 04/2011; 109(4):253-60. DOI:10.1111/j.1742-7843.2011.00712.x · 2.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Up-regulation of kidney α2-adrenoceptor expression has been implicated in the development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). This study was carried out to evaluate renal sodium excretion in response to clonidine administration in SHR and control normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. SHR and WKY rats (12-week-old) were placed in metabolic cages for 4 days: the first 2 days in control conditions and the following 2 days under oral clonidine treatment (100 μg/kg body weight). Clonidine produced a similar reduction in systolic blood pressure values in SHR and WKY rats, although SHR remained hypertensive. At the end of the study SHR and WKY rats presented similar noradrenaline plasma levels. However, noradrenaline kidney tissue levels were significantly higher in SHR compared to WKY rats. Under control conditions, SHR presented lower urine flow compared to WKY rats. Clonidine produced a significant decrease in urine flow in WKY rats but not in SHR. Furthermore, clonidine also produced a significant reduction in urinary sodium, potassium, and creatinine excretion in WKY rats, but had no effect in SHR. In conclusion, in SHR the reduction in systolic blood pressure and sympathetic activity produced by clonidine was not accompanied by a decrease in urine volume and sodium excretion.Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 05/2012; 119(2):122-30. DOI:10.1254/jphs.12058FP · 2.11 Impact Factor