Download full-text


Available from: Samuel Robin Chamberlain, Jun 19, 2014
344 Reads
  • Source
    • "That is, if OC trait markers negatively affect neuropsychological performance, one would assume that the current subclinical group might have performed worse than the nonclinical control group. Moreover, the OC (Y-BOCS) and functional impairment tendencies (CAIOC) could affect cognitive processing , but not to a degree detrimental to cognitive functioning , which is in contrast to how cognitive processing can manifest itself to a much more damaging degree in OCD patients [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48]. Subclinical groups within the healthy population seem to be distinguished from OCD patients based on their neuropsychological performance on selective cognitive Table 5: Means and standard deviations in the sub-clinical and non-clinical groups for the IED, SOC, verbal, and nonverbal reasoning task measures. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Individuals who are not clinically diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but still display obsessive-compulsive (OC) tendencies may show cognitive impairments. The present study investigated whether there are subgroups within a healthy group showing characteristic cognitive and emotional performance levels similar to those found in OCD patients and whether they differ from OCD subgroups regarding performance levels. Of interest are those cases showing subclinical symptomatology. The results revealed no impairments in the subclinical OC participants on the neuropsychological tasks, while evidence suggests that there exist high and low scores on two standardised clinical instruments (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Cognitive Assessment Instrument of Obsessions and Compulsions) in a healthy sample. OC symptoms may diminish the quality of life and prolong sustainable return to work. It may be that occupational rehabilitation programmes are more effective in rectifying subclinical OC tendencies compared to the often complex symptoms of diagnosed OCD patients. The relationship between cognitive style and subclinical OC symptoms is discussed in terms of how materials and information might be processed. Although subclinical OC tendencies would not seem to constitute a diagnosis of OCD, the quality of treatment programmes such as cognitive behavioural therapy can be improved based on the current investigation.
    07/2013; 2013(6):565191. DOI:10.1155/2013/565191
  • Source
    • "Recognition time has been found to be both impaired (Watkins et al., 2005) and intact (Purcell et al., 1998b). The performance in OCD on the SWM is somewhat more mixed because OCD patients have been reported to make more errors when searching for tokens that are hidden in different spatial locations (Chamberlain et al., 2007; Dittrich et al., 2010b; Nedeljkovic et al., 2009; Purcell et al., 1998a, b) while similar performances to healthy controls have also been found (Barnett et al., 1999; Nielen & den Boer, 2003; Simpson et al., 2006). One study has systematically investigated the performance for patients in different symptom dimensions and found on the SRM that recognition accuracy was impaired in obsessional patients while the error rates on the SWM was impaired in checkers and patients with a mixed obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptom profile (Nedeljkovic et al., 2009). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate spatial recognition abilities and working memory in obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) patients grouped according to their primary symptom dimensions. Memory has always occupied a central position in OCD research, mainly because of the notion that faulty memory processes could mediate many of the repetitive compul-sive rituals. However, the role of different memory systems is not yet fully understood. Methods: There were 68 OCD patients and 65 healthy controls who completed two tasks from the Cambridge Neu-ropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB); a) spatial recognition memory, b) spatial working memory. Standard clinical and psychological background measures were also employed. Results: The OCD patients were impaired in spatial recognition memory whereas spatial working memory was spared regarding performance accuracy. Selective deficits in visuospatial recognition memory were associated with patients in all symptom dimensions while patients in the dimension contamination were the only ones impaired in both recognition ac-curacy and recognition time. Conclusion: It is suggested that spatial memory impairments may be secondary to an inability to apply efficiently elabo-rated attentional and goal-oriented strategies as part of the executive system to support visuospatial recognition memory in addition to experiences of incompleteness. The clinical relevance of the findings is discussed (German J Psychiatry 2011; 14: 1-12).
    German Journal of Psychiatry 07/2011; 14:1-12.
  • Source
    • "he core problem in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) seems to be the inability to inhibit both obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors. Recent research has proposed that in OCD, the nature of cognitive deficits could stem from dysfunctional performance on tasks measuring response inhibition, tapping into overlapping cognitive domains such as set shifting and cognitive flexibility (Dittrich et al., 2010; Rubies et al., 2001; Watkins et al., 2005). These cognitive abnormalities are thought to involve dysfunctional processing in the prefrontal lobes and, more specifically, in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC; e.g., Menzies et al., 2008). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the ability of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in identifying pleasant and disgusting smells. Methods: Participants were 55 OCD patients and 80 healthy controls, also matched for history of cigarette smoking. They were administered a smell identification test consisting of a subsample of 13 smells from the Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) in addition to two new smells. Participants were exposed to smells from liquids in glass bottles. Results: The OCD patients were significantly impaired compared to the healthy controls in identifying the smells. When controlling for anxiety, this group difference remained stable only for disgusting but not pleasant smells. An ef-fect of patients in different symptom dimensions on smell identification was also found. Conclusion: These findings suggest that in OCD, a specific dysfunction related to emotional appraisal of sensory stimu-li, in the absence of a sensory deficit, may be apparent. This emotional deficiency could stem from disruption in processing related to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) (German J Psychiatry 2010; 13 (3): 127–139).
    German Journal of Psychiatry 08/2010; 13(3):127-139.
Show more