Partial inhibition of the sodium pump (Na/K-ATP-ase) by a circulating inhibitor is known to occur in humans. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of novel bufadienolides lacking an oxygen at C14 on sodium pumps in human erythrocytes and leucocytes, dog kidney and pig brain and to document the importance of the stereochemistry at C17 on the ability to inhibit these sodium pumps. 14α bufadienolides were weak inhibitors of all preparations studied. 3ß-OH,5ß,14ß bufadienolide produced near-total inhibition of dog kidney and pig brain Na/K-ATP-ase. Over the same concentration range, it maximally inhibited the sodium pump of erythrocytes by 70% and leucocytes by 47%. The inhibition profile induced in the leucocyte sodium pump deviated significantly from the simple sigmoidal relationship present in the other preparations over the 3 × 10-5 to 1 × 10-7 mol/l concentration range. Allo-emicymarin (17α) was confirmed to be a weak inhibitor of the sodium pump/ATP-ase compared with emicymarin (17ß) but both were weaker inhibitors of the leucocyte sodium pump than that of the other preparations. Molecules with the C14 in the ß configuration are more efficacious than in the α configuration. In the case of emicymarin, the attachment of the furone at C17 in the α configuration results in substantially weaker inhibitory activity than in the beta configuration, seen in most cardenolides and bufadienolides. Unlike ouabain and bufalin that show no specificity of action in these preparations, 3ß- OH,5ß,14ß bufadienolide selectively inhibits the activity of at least one low-prevalence subset of the leucocyte Na/K-ATP-ase.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biotransformation of three bioactive bufadienolides, namely, bufotalin (1), telocinobufagin (2), and gamabufotalin (3) by cell suspension cultures of Saussurea involucrata yielded 11 products. Bufotalin yielded 3-epi-bufotalin (1a), 3-epi-desacetylbufotalin (1b), 3-epi-bufotalin 3-O-β-D-glucoside (1c), 1β-hydroxybufotalin (1d), and 5β-hydroxybufotalin (1e); telocinobufagin yielded 3-dehydroscillarenin (2a), 3-dehydrobufalin (2b), and 3-epi-telocinobufagin (2c); and gamabufotalin yielded 3-epi-gamabufotalin (3a), 3-dehydrogamabufotalin (3b), and 3-dehydro-Δ¹-gamabufotalin (3c), respectively. Among these 11 products, 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 3a and 3c are previously unreported. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated based on NMR spectroscopic analyses and mass spectrometry. Most metabolites showed significant cytotoxic activities against human hepatoma (HepG2) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines. In addition, the time course for the biotransformation of 3 was investigated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine mortality associated with exposure to chrysotile asbestos, a cohort of asbestos workers from an asbestos textile factory in China was followed prospectively from 1972 to 2008. A total 577 workers were successfully followed, achieving a follow-up rate of 98.5% over 37 years. Employment data and smoking information were obtained from factory and individual workers. Vital status was ascertained from factory personnel records and the municipal death registry. Workers were categorized into high, medium and low exposure groups in terms of their job titles and workshops. Follow-up generated 17,508 person-years, with 259 deaths from all causes, 96 all cancers and 53 lung cancers and 2 mesotheliomas. The highest cancer mortality was observed in the high exposure group, with 1.5-fold age-adjusted mortality from all cancers and 2-fold from lung cancer compared to the low exposure group. Age and smoking adjusted hazard ratio in the high exposure group was 2.99 (95%CI, 1.30, 6.91) for lung cancer and 2.04 (1.12, 3.71) for all cancers. Both smokers and nonsmokers at the high exposure level had a high death risk of lung cancer, with a clearer exposure-response trend seen in smokers. This study confirmed increased mortality from lung cancer and all cancers in asbestos workers, and the cancer mortality was associated with exposure level.
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