Side effects of minocycline treatment in patients with fragile X syndrome and exploration of outcome measures.

M.I.N.D. Institute, University of California at Davis Medical Center, USA.
American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (Impact Factor: 2.08). 09/2010; 115(5):433-43. DOI: 10.1352/1944-7558-115.5.433
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Minocycline can rescue the dendritic spine and synaptic structural abnormalities in the fragile X knock-out mouse. This is a review and preliminary survey to document side effects and potential outcome measures for minocycline use in the treatment of individuals with fragile X syndrome. We surveyed 50 patients with fragile X syndrome who received minocycline for at least 2 weeks and found that the most common reported side effect is gastrointestinal difficulty, including loss of appetite. The families reported an improvement in language and behavioral areas. Outcome measures in the design of future randomized clinical trials should include both behavioral and language measures. As with any other treatments, we emphasize that randomized clinical trials are needed to determine the efficacy of minocycline in fragile X syndrome.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is the most common inherited cause of learning disability worldwide. FraX is an X-linked neuro-developmental disorder involving an unstable trinucleotide repeat expansion of cytosine guanine guanine (CGG). Individuals with the full mutation of FraX have >200 GG repeats with premutation carriers having 55-200 GG repeats. A wide spectrum of physical, behavioural, cognitive, psychiatric and medical problems have been associated with both full mutation and premutation carriers of FraX. In this review, we detail the clinical profile and examine the aetiology, epidemiology, neuropathology, neuroimaging findings and possible management strategies for individuals with both the full mutation and premutation of FraX.
    Journal of Neurology 07/2011; 259(3):401-13. · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by lack of the FMR1 protein, FMRP, a translational repressor. Its absence leads to up-regulation of locally translated proteins involved in synaptic transmission and plasticity, including the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). In the Fmr1 knock-out (KO), a mouse model of FXS, an abnormal elevated expression of MMP-9 in the brain was pharmacologically down-regulated after treatment with the tetracycline derivative minocycline. Moreover, the rescue of immature dendritic spine morphology and a significant improvement of abnormal behavior were associated with down-regulation of MMP-9. Here, we report on high plasma activity of MMP-9 in individuals with FXS. In addition, we investigate MMP-9 changes in patients with FXS who have gone through a minocycline controlled clinical trial and correlate MMP-9 activity to clinical observations. The results of this study suggest that, in humans, activity levels of MMP-9 are lowered by minocycline and that, in some cases, changes in MMP-9 activity are positively associated with improvement based on clinical measures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 07/2013; · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two different mutations in the FMR1 gene may lead to autism. The full mutation, with >200 CGG repeats in the 5' end of FMR1, leads to hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing of FMR1, resulting in absence or deficiency of the protein product, FMRP. Deficiency of FMRP in the brain causes fragile X syndrome (FXS). Autism occurs in approximately 30% of those with FXS, and pervasive developmental disorders-not otherwise specified occur in an additional 30%. FMRP is an RNA binding protein that modulates receptor-mediated dendritic translation; deficiency leads to dysregulation of many proteins important for synaptic plasticity. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1/5) activated translation is upregulated in FXS, and new targeted treatments that act on this system include mGluR5 antagonists and GABA agonists, which may reverse the cognitive and behavioral deficits in FXS. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is one of the proteins elevated in FXS, and minocycline reduces excess MMP-9 activity in the Fmr1 knockout mouse model of FXS. Both minocycline and mGluR5 antagonists are currently being evaluated in patients with FXS through controlled treatment trials. The premutation (55-200 CGG repeats) may also contribute to the mechanism of autism in approximately 10% of males and 2-3% of females. Premutations with <150 repeats exert cellular effects through a different molecular mechanism, one that involves elevated levels of FMR1 mRNA, CGG-mediated toxicity to neurons, early cell death, and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome. In those with large premutations (150-200), lowered levels of FMRP also occur.
    Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics 07/2010; 7(3):264-74. · 5.38 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 1, 2014