Inactivated split-virion seasonal influenza vaccine (Fluarix): a review of its use in the prevention of seasonal influenza in adults and the elderly.
ABSTRACT Fluarix is a trivalent, inactivated, split-virion influenza vaccine containing 15 microg haemagglutinin from each of the three influenza virus strains (including an H1N1 influenza A virus subtype, an H3N2 influenza A virus subtype and an influenza B virus) that are expected to be circulating in the up-coming influenza season. Fluarix is highly immunogenic in healthy adults and elderly, and exceeds the criteria that make it acceptable for licensure in various regions (including the US and Europe). In a large, phase III, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial conducted in the US (2004/2005) in subjects aged 18-64 years, postvaccination seroconversion rates against the H1N1, H3N2 and B antigens were 60-78% and respective postvaccination seroprotection rates were 97-99% in Fluarix recipients. Another phase III trial conducted in the US (2005/2006) established the noninferiority of Fluarix versus another trivalent inactivated influenza virus vaccine in subjects aged >or=18 years, including a subgroup of elderly subjects. In annual European registration trials, Fluarix has consistently exceeded the immunogenicity criteria set by the EU Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use for adults and the elderly. Fluarix demonstrated immunogenicity in small, open-label studies in at-risk subjects. During a year when the vaccine was well matched to the circulating strain, Fluarix demonstrated efficacy against culture-confirmed influenza A and/or B in a placebo-controlled trial in adults aged 18-64 years. In addition, Fluarix vaccination of pregnant women demonstrated efficacy in reducing the rate of laboratory-confirmed influenza in the infants and reducing febrile respiratory illnesses in the mothers and their new-born infants in a randomized trial. Fluarix was generally well tolerated in adults and the elderly in well designed clinical trials and in the annual European registration trials, with most local and general adverse events being transient and mild to moderate in intensity. The most common adverse reactions in recipients of Fluarix were pain, redness or swelling at the injection site, muscle aches, fatigue, headache and arthralgia. In conclusion, Fluarix is an important means of decreasing the impact of seasonal influenza viruses on adults and the elderly.
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ABSTRACT: Pertussis or whooping cough is increasingly being shown to be a respiratory infection affecting the elderly and a significant percentage of older people infected with Bordetella pertussis experience considerable morbidity and even mortality. However, current knowledge of burden of disease is limited largely to passive surveillance data with little well-designed active surveillance to better ascertain the true burden of pertussis in the elderly, to inform vaccination strategies. The current review aims to identify gaps in knowledge to inform policy considerations relating to pertussis vaccination among the elderly.Vaccine 09/2012; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Two phylogenetic lineages of influenza B virus coexist and circulate in the human population (B/Yamagata and B/Victoria) but only one B-strain is included in each seasonal vaccine. Mismatch regularly occurs between the recommended and circulating B-strain. Inclusion of both lineages in vaccines may offer better protection against influenza. METHODS: This study (NCT00714285) assessed the immunogenicity and safety of two candidate quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIV) containing two A- and two B-strains (one from each lineage) in adults (18--60 years). Subjects were randomized and stratified by age to receive either QIV (non-adjuvanted or low-dose adjuvanted [LD QIV-AS]) or trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV, non-adjuvanted or low-dose adjuvanted [LD TIV-AS]), N = 105 in all treatment groups. The study evaluated the statistical non-inferiority of the immunological response elicited by QIV and LD QIV-AS versus TIV and LD TIV-AS and the statistical superiority of the response elicited by the quadrivalent vaccines against the B-strain (B/Jiangsu) not included in the TIV. RESULTS: Pre-defined non-inferiority and superiority criteria were reached for both QIVs compared to the TIVs. On Day 21 in all vaccine groups SCRs were >=54.8%, SPRs >=88.5% and SCFs >=5.4 for the A strains and B strain included in all vaccines (B/Malaysia). This fulfilled the European (CHMP) and the US (CBER) licensing criteria for the assessment of influenza vaccines in adults (CHMP criteria: SCR > 40%, SPR > 70%, SCF > 2; CBER criteria: LL of 95%CI for SPR >= 70% or SCR >= 40%). Only the QIVs met the CHMP and CBER criteria for the B/Jiangsu strain. In the QIV and LD-QIV-AS groups, the SCFs were 9.1 and 8.1, respectively and the SPRs were 98.1% and 95.2%, whereas for the TIV and LD-TIV-AS groups, the SCFs were 2.3 and 2.5, respectively, and the SPRs were 75.0% and 63.8%, with the LLs of the 95%CI <70% for SPR and <40% for SCR. CONCLUSIONS: Addition of a fourth strain did not impact the immune response elicited by the three original strains contained in the TIV. A clear immunological benefit was seen with the QIV formulation for the second B-strain, indicating that quadrivalent vaccines could provide broader protection against influenza.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00714285.BMC Infectious Diseases 05/2013; 13(1):224. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The inactivated quadrivalent split-virus seasonal influenza vaccine [Fluarix(®) quadrivalent, manufactured in Dresden (D-QIV)] contains 15 μg haemagglutinin from each of the four influenza virus strains expected to circulate in the upcoming influenza season. Unlike seasonal trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs), which have been used previously, quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs) contain two influenza A subtype viruses and two B type viruses. As two different B viruses have co-circulated in recent years, incorporating both B lineages reduces the risk of the dominant B strain not being included in the vaccine. D-QIV is approved for active immunization of individuals aged ≥3 years to prevent disease caused by the influenza A subtype viruses and B type viruses contained in the vaccine. In large randomized, controlled trials, D-QIV was highly immunogenic in healthy adults (including individuals aged ≥65 years) and children, and exceeded the criteria for vaccine licensure. Immune responses for D-QIV, compared with those for TIVs, were non-inferior against influenza A strains and common B strains and superior against the additional B strain. D-QIV was generally well tolerated in all age groups studied and, overall, reactogenicity and tolerability were generally similar to observations with TIVs. Quadrivalent influenza vaccines are expected to offer substantial cost-effectiveness benefits in seasons where the B lineage selected for inclusion in TIVs does not match the dominant circulating strain. Thus, by incorporating both circulating influenza B lineages, vaccination with D-QIV is likely to reduce the risk of the dominant circulating B type virus not matching the strain selected for the vaccine and, therefore, more effectively protect target populations from influenza than TIVs.Drugs 09/2013; · 4.13 Impact Factor