Structure-activity relationships of GPR120 agonists based on a docking simulation.
ABSTRACT GPR120 is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed preferentially in the intestinal tract and adipose tissue, that has been implicated in mediating free fatty acid-stimulated glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. To develop GPR120-specific agonists, a series of compounds (denoted as NCG compounds) derived from a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist were synthesized, and their structure-activity relationships as GPR120 agonists were explored. To examine the agonistic activities of these newly synthesized NCG compounds, and of compounds already shown to have GPR120 agonistic activity (grifolic acid and MEDICA16), we conducted docking simulation in a GPR120 homology model that was developed on the basis of a photoactivated model derived from the crystal structure of bovine rhodopsin. We calculated the hydrogen bonding energies between the compounds and the GPR120 model. These energies correlated well with the GPR120 agonistic activity of the compounds (R(2) = 0.73). NCG21, the NCG compound with the lowest calculated hydrogen bonding energy, showed the most potent extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in a cloned GPR120 system. Furthermore, NCG21 potently activated ERK, intracellular calcium responses and GLP-1 secretion in murine enteroendocrine STC-1 cells that express GPR120 endogenously. Moreover, administration of NCG21 into the mouse colon caused an increase in plasma GLP-1 levels. Taken together, our present study showed that a docking simulation using a GPR120 homology model might be useful to predict the agonistic activity of compounds.
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ABSTRACT: The free fatty acid receptor (FFAR) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activated by free fatty acids (FFAs), which play important roles not only as essential nutritional components but also as signaling molecules in numerous physiological processes. In the last decade, FFARs have been identified by the GPCR deorphanization strategy derived from the human genome database. To date, several FFARs have been identified and characterized as critical components in various physiological processes. FFARs are categorized according to the chain length of FFA ligands that activate each FFAR; FFA2 and FFA3 are activated by short chain FFAs, GPR84 is activated by medium-chain FFAs, whereas FFA1 and GPR120 are activated by medium- or long-chain FFAs. FFARs appear to act as physiological sensors for food-derived FFAs and digestion products in the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, they are considered to be involved in the regulation of energy metabolism mediated by the secretion of insulin and incretin hormones and by the regulation of the sympathetic nerve systems, taste preferences, and inflammatory responses related to insulin resistance. Therefore, because FFARs can be considered to play important roles in physiological processes and various pathophysiological processes, FFARs have been targeted in therapeutic strategies for the treatment of metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In this review, we present a summary of recent progress regarding the understanding of their physiological roles in the regulation of energy metabolism and their potential as therapeutic targets.Ergebnisse der Physiologie 04/2013; · 6.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: GPR120 is a receptor of unsaturated long-chain fatty acids reported to mediate GLP-1 secretion, insulin sensitization, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity effects and is therefore emerging as a new potential target for treatment of type 2 diabetes and metabolic diseases. Further investigation is however hindered by the lack of suitable receptor modulators. Screening of FFA1 ligands provided a lead with moderate activity on GPR120 and moderate selectivity over FFA1. Optimization led to the discovery of the first potent and selective GPR120 agonist.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/2012; 55(9):4511-5. · 4.80 Impact Factor