The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the over 50 age group is increasing as a consequence of younger adults ageing with HIV, in addition to new diagnoses in later life. We conducted searches in MEDLINE for English language studies published between January 1984 and January 2010 using search terms 'HIV', 'AIDS', 'HIV testing' and 'HIV complications' and selected articles relevant to adults aged 50 years and over. The prevalence, natural history and complications of HIV infection and treatment in older adults are reviewed. In 2007 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States reported that 16.8% of new diagnoses of HIV that year were in individuals aged over 50 years. Older adults are vulnerable to late or missed diagnosis, and poorer treatment outcomes, due to the misconception that they are not at risk. A heightened awareness of HIV as a possible diagnosis in older adults is becoming increasingly important. As the HIV population ages, the emergence of disease and treatment complications such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and dementia are evident. Management of older adults with HIV and multiple co-morbidities presents challenges to infectious diseases physicians and geriatricians alike. Inclusion of older adults in future HIV clinical trials will help design healthcare models to provide for this growing population.
"The geographic distribution of where PLHIV live shows a gradual dispersal to outer urban and regional areas, away from the traditional concentration in the main capital cities [36,37]. The effective treatment of HIV also means people are living longer, and are therefore facing a new range of health issues related to ageing with HIV [38,39]. In addition to these new challenges for the delivery of HIV clinical care, the Australian medical profession is itself undergoing transformation, particularly through the ageing, feminisation and internationalisation of the workforce . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
HIV has become a chronic manageable infection in the developed world, and early and lifelong treatment has the potential to significantly reduce transmission rates in the community. A skilled and motivated HIV medical workforce will be required to achieve these health management and prevention outcomes, but concerns have been noted in a number of settings about the challenges of recruiting a new generation of clinicians to HIV medicine.
As part of a larger qualitative study of the HIV general practice workforce in Australia, in-depth interviews were conducted with 31 general practitioners accredited to prescribe HIV medications in community settings. A thematic analysis was conducted of the de-identified transcripts, and this paper describes and interprets accounts of the rewards of pursuing and sustaining an engagement with HIV medicine in general practice settings.
The rewards of initially becoming involved in providing care to people living with HIV were described as interest and inspiration, community calling and right place, right time. The rewards which then supported and sustained that engagement over time were described as challenge and change, making a difference and enhanced professional identity. Participants viewed the role of primary care doctor with special expertise in HIV as occupying an ideal interface between the ‘coalface’ and the ‘cutting edge’, and offering a unique opportunity for general practitioners to feel intimately connected to both community needs and scientific change.
Approaches to recruiting and retaining the HIV medical workforce should build upon the intellectual and social rewards of this work, as well as the sense of professional belonging and connection which is imbued between both doctors and patients and across the global and national networks of HIV clinicians. Insights regarding the rewards of engaging with HIV medicine may also be useful in enhancing the prospect of general practice as a career, and strengthening retention and job satisfaction among the existing general practice workforce.
BMC Family Practice 03/2013; 14(1):39. DOI:10.1186/1471-2296-14-39 · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The international electrochemical commission (IEC) commissioned a maintenance team to review and improve IEC 60034-3, the primary IEC standard for cylindrical rotor synchronous machines. The authors of this paper have contributed to concurrent initiatives within the IEEE to modernize the C50.13 standard for large steam turbine generators and combustion turbine generators. In this paper the authors report highlights of changes made to the newly proposed Rev 5 of IEC 60034-3 and also describe a few comparisons between this standard and the newly proposed revision of IEEE C50.13
Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2004. IEEE; 07/2004
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals with syphilis have higher chance of having HIV, and syphilis' genital ulcers increases HIV transmission rate. Nevertheless, there are few well-documented studies about HIV and syphilis co-infection and its risk factors. The study was based on 2262 HIV infected individuals from South Brazilian HIV cohort, which began in 1991, and this analysis included individuals who were included in the cohort until November 2008. Inclusion criteria were having CD4 + T cell count and viral load at baseline, and syphilis serology tests (venereal disease research laboratory [VDRL] > 1:64 or a positive VDRL plus a positive treponemal test). A total of 1012 patients were included; 580 were men (57%); mean age at HIV diagnosis was 33 years; 591 (58%) had previous diagnosis of AIDS; most of the individuals acquired HIV from sexual contact (47.9% heterosexual and 31.7% men who had sex with men [MSM]); and 759 (75%) were on antiretroviral therapy. The prevalence of syphilis was 20.5% (208). After multivariate analysis, being male (2.01; 95% CI, 1.23-3.27; p = 0.005) and MSM (1.91; 95% CI, 1.25-2.90; p = 0.002) were significantly associated to HIV and syphilis co-infection. Males and MSM were associated with higher risk of this co-infection. Our findings may reflect that this particular population is still engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse, and efforts should be made to better target this specific group as they might perpetuate these infections.
AIDS Care 07/2011; 24(2):252-8. DOI:10.1080/09540121.2011.597706 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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