Morbidity and Mortality Among Older Individuals With Undiagnosed Celiac Disease
ABSTRACT Outcomes of undiagnosed celiac disease (CD) are unclear. We evaluated the morbidity and mortality of undiagnosed CD in a population-based sample of individuals 50 years of age and older.
Stored sera from a population-based sample of 16,886 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents 50 years of age and older were tested for CD based on analysis of tissue transglutaminase and endomysial antibodies. A nested case-control study compared serologically defined subjects with CD with age- and sex-matched, seronegative controls. Medical records were reviewed for comorbid conditions.
We identified 129 (0.8%) subjects with undiagnosed CD in a cohort of 16,847 older adults. A total of 127 undiagnosed cases (49% men; median age, 63.0 y) and 254 matched controls were included in a systematic evaluation for more than 100 potentially coexisting conditions. Subjects with undiagnosed CD had increased rates of osteoporosis and hypothyroidism, as well as lower body mass index and levels of cholesterol and ferritin. Overall survival was not associated with CD status. During a median follow-up period of 10.3 years after serum samples were collected, 20 cases but no controls were diagnosed with CD (15.2% Kaplan-Meier estimate at 10 years).
With the exception of reduced bone health, older adults with undiagnosed CD had limited comorbidity and no increase in mortality compared with controls. Some subjects were diagnosed with CD within a decade of serum collection, indicating that although most cases of undiagnosed CD are clinically silent, some result in symptoms. Undiagnosed CD can confer benefits and liabilities to older individuals.
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ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CD) is a lifelong condition and it often involves impaired nutrition, wide spectrum of symptoms and it requires constant dietetic treatment. The impact of the gluten-free diet on patients' nutritional status and on the other biochemical parameters is being widely investigated. In this article we looked into particular risk factors that might lead to increased prevalence of atherosclerosis in CD patients, including nutritional status, gluten-free diet, lipids profile and concomitant disease-type 1 diabetes mellitus. Here, we present the current data and research on these risk factors of atherosclerosis with respect to celiac disease.Nutrients 07/2014; 6(7):2718-2729. DOI:10.3390/nu6072718 · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Many aspects of autoimmune disease are not well understood, including the specificities of autoimmune targets, and patterns of co-morbidity and cross-heritability across diseases. Prior work has provided evidence that somatic mutation caused by gene conversion and deletion at segmentally duplicated loci is relevant to several diseases. Simple tandem repeat (STR) sequence is highly mutable, both somatically and in the germ-line, and somatic STR mutations are observed under inflammation. Results Protein-coding genes spanning STRs having markers of mutability, including germ-line variability, high total length, repeat count and/or repeat similarity, are evaluated in the context of autoimmunity. For the initiation of autoimmune disease, antigens whose autoantibodies are the first observed in a disease, termed primary autoantigens, are informative. Three primary autoantigens, thyroid peroxidase (TPO), phogrin (PTPRN2) and filaggrin (FLG), include STRs that are among the eleven longest STRs spanned by protein-coding genes. This association of primary autoantigens with long STR sequence is highly significant (). Long STRs occur within twenty genes that are associated with sixteen common autoimmune diseases and atherosclerosis. The repeat within the TTC34 gene is an outlier in terms of length and a link with systemic lupus erythematosus is proposed. Conclusions The results support the hypothesis that many autoimmune diseases are triggered by immune responses to proteins whose DNA sequence mutates somatically in a coherent, consistent fashion. Other autoimmune diseases may be caused by coherent somatic mutations in immune cells. The coherent somatic mutation hypothesis has the potential to be a comprehensive explanation for the initiation of many autoimmune diseases.PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e101093. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0101093 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. According to screening studies, celiac disease (CD) is prevalent in Western Europe. Actual prevalence tends to be much lower. The width of this actual gap is determined by the balance between disease symptoms and the "case-finding" capabilities of the healthcare system. Therefore, we conducted a nationwide study to determine the temporal trends in the incidence in the Netherlands including a focus on demographic aspects. Materials and methods. We performed a nationwide search in the Dutch Pathology Registry (PALGA) to identify all biopsy-proven cases of CD in five different years between 1995 and 2010. Furthermore, demographic profiles and socioeconomic status (SES) of patients were studied. Results. The overall incidence of CD increased from 2.72 (confidence interval [CI] 2.46-2.99) in 1995 to 6.65 (CI 6.27-7.06) per 100,000 inhabitants in 2010. No significant regional differences were noticed. In men, rates increased from 2.28 (CI 1.95-2.65) to 4.71 (CI 4.25-5.20) per 100,000 in 2010. In women, the increase was from 3.27 (CI 2.88-3.70) to 8.66 (CI 8.04-9.31) per 100,000 in 2010. A trend toward leveling of incidence was observed from 2008 to 2010. Patients diagnosed during childhood live in areas with a higher SES compared with patients diagnosed at adult age. Conclusion. The incidence of biopsy-proven CD in the Netherlands increased almost threefold between 1995 and 2010. In areas with a higher SES, relatively more children were diagnosed.Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2014; DOI:10.3109/00365521.2014.915054 · 2.33 Impact Factor