José Ortega y Gasset: La metafísica existencial de la vida

Eidos: Revista de Filosofía, ISSN 1692-8857, Nº. 12, 2010, pags. 214-235 01/2010;
Source: OAI


This paper tackles different aspects of the concept of life in the work of Ortega y Gasset. For the Spanish philosopher, human life is a destitute existence compared with the sufficient being of the substance or the thing; that is why the man is an entity that makes itself. He is the cause of himself in two ways: first because he makes himself and second because he has the ability to decide what he wants to do and how to do it. Ortega argues that being free means avoiding wrong identifications with the world, being able to surpass oneself, fulfilling oneself vocation. This means that every human being must find his own self, his sameness, and clarify his sincere attitude toward everything. No matter if the attitude is stupid or intelligent. What is important is that every human being, in whatever situation, feels and thinks what he really feels and thinks. The paper shows the vulnerability of this existentialist position: the man is charged with the responsibility with regard to his convictions, but not because of his convictions. El presente artículo aborda diferentes facetas del concepto de vida en la obra de Ortega y Gasset. Para el filósofo español, la vida humana es un existir indigente en comparación con el ser suficiente de la sustancia o cosa, por eso el hombre es un ente que se hace a sí mismo. Es la causa de sí mismo en el doble sentido: primero, porque se hace a sí mismo y, segundo, porque tiene la capacidad de decidir qué quiere hacer y cómo. Ortega sostiene que ser libre significa evitar identificaciones codificadoras del mundo, tener la posibilidad de superarse a sí mismo, realizar su vocación. Esto quiere decir que cada ser humano debe encontrar su propio yo, su mismidad, en volver a estar de acuerdo consigo mismo y aclarar: cuál es su sincera actitud hacia cada cosa. No importa de qué actitud se trate, sea tonta o inteligente. Lo importante es que cada ser humano, en cada situación, sienta y piense lo que realmente siente y piensa. En el artículo se muestra la vulnerabilidad de esta posición existencialista que consiste en que al hombre se le encarga la responsabilidad ante sus convicciones, pero no por sus convicciones.

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    ABSTRACT: In José Ortega y Gasset and Juan Ramón Jiménez metaphysics is not understood in its usual acceptation as a pre-notion for general and abstract matters, but rather as an intimate urgency, rooted in the human person, of response to the problems of being and existence. For these authors, man is interpreted in his dimension of possibility as the foundation of all philosophical exercise, or of his own being and living. By questioning the meaning of life in its transfinite consistency, we intend to clarify the metaphysical reality comprehending it as the vital substrate of the human, which is no less than the pursuit of fullness and reiteration of the world given in one’s own experiential activities.
    01/2012; DOI:10.4000/cultura.1723


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