Inflammatory cytokine induced regulation of superoxide dismutase 3 expression by human mesenchymal stem cells.
ABSTRACT Increasing evidence suggests that bone marrow derived-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have neuroprotective properties and a major mechanism of action is through their capacity to secrete a diverse range of potentially neurotrophic or anti-oxidant factors. The recent discovery that MSCs secrete superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) may help explain studies in which MSCs have a direct anti-oxidant activity that is conducive to neuroprotection in both in vivo and in vitro. SOD3 attenuates tissue damage and reduces inflammation and may confer neuroprotective effects against nitric oxide-mediated stress to cerebellar neurons; but, its role in relation to central nervous system inflammation and neurodegeneration has not been extensively investigated. Here we have performed a series of experiments showing that SOD3 secretion by human bone marrow-derived MSCs is regulated synergistically by the inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma, rather than through direct exposure to reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, we have shown SOD3 secretion by MSCs is increased by activated microglial cells. We have also shown that MSCs and recombinant SOD are able to increase both neuronal and axonal survival in vitro against nitric oxide or microglial induced damage, with an increased MSC-induced neuroprotective effect evident in the presence of inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. We have shown MSCs are able to convey these neuroprotective effects through secretion of soluble factors alone and furthermore demonstrated that SOD3 secretion by MSCs is, at least, partially responsible for this phenomenon. SOD3 secretion by MSCs maybe of relevance to treatment strategies for inflammatory disease of the central nervous system.
- SourceAvailable from: Fakher Rahim[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Multiple Sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system in which T cells experience a second phase of activation, which ultimately leads to axonal demyelination and neurological disability. The recent advances in stem cell therapies may serve as potential treatments for neurological disorders. There are broad types of stem cells such as neural, embryonic, mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cells with unprecedented hope in treating many debilitating diseases. In this paper we will review the substantial literature regarding experimental and clinical use of these stem cells and possible mechanisms in the treatment of MS. These results may pave the road for the utilization of stem cells for the treatment of MS.International journal of hematology-oncology and stem cell research. 01/2013; 7(1-1):15-33.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells, which can give rise to several cell types including osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondroblasts. These cells can be found in a variety of adult and fetal tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, cord blood, and placenta. In recent years, the biological properties of MSCs have attracted the attention of researchers worldwide due to their potential application for treating a series of clinical situations. Among these properties, special attention should be given to the immunoregulatory potential of those cells. MSCs are able to act on all cells of the immune system, which includes the capacity to inhibit the proliferation and function of T-cells. This feature renders them natural candidates to treat several diseases in which cellular immune response is exacerbated. In this review, we outline the main mechanisms by which MSCs immunosuppress T-cell response, focusing on cell-cell contact, secretion of soluble factors, and regulatory T-cell generation. The influence of surface markers in the immunosuppression process and features of MSCs isolated from different sources are also discussed. Finally, the influences of toll-like receptors and cytokines on the inflammatory microenvironment are highlighted regarding the activation of MSCs to exert their immunoregulatory function.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:216806. · 2.71 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs) are rare multipotent cells with potent regenerative and immunomodulatory properties. Microglial cells are specialized tissue macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS) that continuously survey their environment with highly motile extensions. Recently several studies have shown that MSCs are capable of reprogramming microglia into an "M2-like" phenotype characterized by increased phagocytic activity and upregulated expression of anti-inflammatory mediators in vitro. However, the precise polarization states of microglia in the presence of MSCs under physiological or under inflammatory conditions remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that MSCs induce a mixed microglia phenotype defined as Arg-1-high, CD86-high, CD206-high, IL-10-high, PGE2-high, MCP-1/CCL2-high, IL-1β-moderate, NALP-3-low, and TNF-α-low cells. These MSC-elicited microglial cells have high phagocytic activity and antigen-presenting ability. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is able to shape this microglia phenotype quantitatively, but not qualitatively in the presence of MSCs. This unique polarization state resembles a novel regulatory microglia phenotype, which might contribute to the resolution of inflammation and to tissue repair in the CNS.Stem Cells and Development 05/2014; · 4.20 Impact Factor