Increasing evidence suggests that bone marrow derived-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have neuroprotective properties and a major mechanism of action is through their capacity to secrete a diverse range of potentially neurotrophic or anti-oxidant factors. The recent discovery that MSCs secrete superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) may help explain studies in which MSCs have a direct anti-oxidant activity that is conducive to neuroprotection in both in vivo and in vitro. SOD3 attenuates tissue damage and reduces inflammation and may confer neuroprotective effects against nitric oxide-mediated stress to cerebellar neurons; but, its role in relation to central nervous system inflammation and neurodegeneration has not been extensively investigated. Here we have performed a series of experiments showing that SOD3 secretion by human bone marrow-derived MSCs is regulated synergistically by the inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma, rather than through direct exposure to reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, we have shown SOD3 secretion by MSCs is increased by activated microglial cells. We have also shown that MSCs and recombinant SOD are able to increase both neuronal and axonal survival in vitro against nitric oxide or microglial induced damage, with an increased MSC-induced neuroprotective effect evident in the presence of inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. We have shown MSCs are able to convey these neuroprotective effects through secretion of soluble factors alone and furthermore demonstrated that SOD3 secretion by MSCs is, at least, partially responsible for this phenomenon. SOD3 secretion by MSCs maybe of relevance to treatment strategies for inflammatory disease of the central nervous system.
"Studies also showed that use of TNF-α associated with INF-γ promotes increase of HGF, PGE2, and COX-2 levels by MSCs, favoring the inhibition of T-cell proliferation . Furthermore, secretion of superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) by human BM-MSCs is regulated synergistically by TNF-α and INF-γ . In turn, SOD3 appears to be involved in the inhibition of T-cell activation and proliferation . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells, which can give rise to several cell types including osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondroblasts. These cells can be found in a variety of adult and fetal tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, cord blood, and placenta. In recent years, the biological properties of MSCs have attracted the attention of researchers worldwide due to their potential application for treating a series of clinical situations. Among these properties, special attention should be given to the immunoregulatory potential of those cells. MSCs are able to act on all cells of the immune system, which includes the capacity to inhibit the proliferation and function of T-cells. This feature renders them natural candidates to treat several diseases in which cellular immune response is exacerbated. In this review, we outline the main mechanisms by which MSCs immunosuppress T-cell response, focusing on cell-cell contact, secretion of soluble factors, and regulatory T-cell generation. The influence of surface markers in the immunosuppression process and features of MSCs isolated from different sources are also discussed. Finally, the influences of toll-like receptors and cytokines on the inflammatory microenvironment are highlighted regarding the activation of MSCs to exert their immunoregulatory function.
BioMed Research International 06/2014; 2014:216806. DOI:10.1155/2014/216806 · 3.17 Impact Factor
"Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] 1 and 3 (gene symbols, SOD1 and SOD3) were identified in the present study and found to negatively correlate with neopterin. These results seemed surprising, since SOD3 expression is believed to be up regulated by IFN-γ and TNF-α together , while IFN-γ stimulates the production of neopterin. On the other hand, perhaps consistent with the present findings, SOD1 has been reported to be reduced in HIV-infected cognitively impaired patients . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Central nervous system (CNS) infection is a nearly universal feature of untreated systemic HIV infection with a clinical spectrum that ranges from chronic asymptomatic infection to severe cognitive and motor dysfunction. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has played an important part in defining the character of this evolving infection and response to treatment. To further characterize CNS HIV infection and its effects, we applied advanced high-throughput proteomic methods to CSF to identify novel proteins and their changes with disease progression and treatment.
After establishing an accurate mass and time (AMT) tag database containing 23,141 AMT tags for CSF peptides, we analyzed 91 CSF samples by LC-MS from 12 HIV-uninfected and 14 HIV-infected subjects studied in the context of initiation of antiretroviral therapy and correlated abundances of identified proteins a) within and between subjects, b) with all other proteins across the entire sample set, and c) with "external" CSF biomarkers of infection (HIV RNA), immune activation (neopterin) and neural injury (neurofilament light chain protein, NFL). We identified a mean of 2,333 +/- 328 (SD) peptides covering 307 +/-16 proteins in the 91 CSF sample set. Protein abundances differed both between and within subjects sampled at different time points and readily separated those with and without HIV infection. Proteins also showed inter-correlations across the sample set that were associated with biologically relevant dynamic processes. One-hundred and fifty proteins showed correlations with the external biomarkers. For example, using a threshold of cross correlation coefficient (Pearson's) ≤ -0.3 and ≥0.3 for potentially meaningful relationships, a total of 99 proteins correlated with CSF neopterin (43 negative and 56 positive correlations) and related principally to neuronal plasticity and survival and to innate immunity. Pathway analysis defined several networks connecting the identified proteins, including one with amyloid precursor protein as a central node.
Advanced CSF proteomic analysis enabled the identification of an array of novel protein changes across the spectrum of CNS HIV infection and disease. This initial analysis clearly demonstrated the value of contemporary state-of-the-art proteomic CSF analysis as a discovery tool in HIV infection with likely similar application to other neurological inflammatory and degenerative diseases.
"MSCs harvested from femoral shaft bone marrow were cultured and characterised according to previous published reports from our laboratory –, , . Briefly, MSC cultures were characterised at third passage using anti-CD105, anti-CD45 (eBioscience, California, USA), anti-CD166 and with anti-CD44 (Serotec, Oxford, UK). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dramatic advances in recent decades in understanding the genetics of Friedreich ataxia (FRDA)--a GAA triplet expansion causing greatly reduced expression of the mitochondrial protein frataxin--have thus far yielded no therapeutic dividend, since there remain no effective treatments that prevent or even slow the inevitable progressive disability in affected individuals. Clinical interventions that restore frataxin expression are attractive therapeutic approaches, as, in theory, it may be possible to re-establish normal function in frataxin deficient cells if frataxin levels are increased above a specific threshold. With this in mind several drugs and cytokines have been tested for their ability to increase frataxin levels. Cell transplantation strategies may provide an alternative approach to this therapeutic aim, and may also offer more widespread cellular protective roles in FRDA. Here we show a direct link between frataxin expression in fibroblasts derived from FRDA patients with both decreased expression of hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzymes and increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide-mediated toxicity. We demonstrate that normal human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) induce both an increase in frataxin gene and protein expression in FRDA fibroblasts via secretion of soluble factors. Finally, we show that exposure to factors produced by human MSCs increases resistance to hydrogen peroxide-mediated toxicity in FRDA fibroblasts through, at least in part, restoring the expression of the hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase 1. These findings suggest, for the first time, that stem cells may increase frataxin levels in FRDA and transplantation of MSCs may offer an effective treatment for these patients.
PLoS ONE 10/2011; 6(10):e26098. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0026098 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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