Blobner M, Eriksson LI, Scholz J, et al. Reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex compared with neostigmine during sevoflurane anaesthesia: results of a randomised, controlled trial
Sugammadex, a modified gamma-cyclodextrin, is a selective relaxant-binding agent designed to reverse the effects of the steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents rocuronium or vecuronium. This study compared the efficacy of sugammadex and neostigmine for reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium for facilitating elective surgery.
This randomised, multicentre, parallel-group trial included 98 adult patients. Patients received intravenous propofol for induction followed by sevoflurane maintenance anaesthesia. Neuromuscular blockade was monitored using acceleromyography and a train-of-four (TOF) mode of stimulation. Patients were randomly allocated to receive sugammadex 2.0 mg kg(-1) or neostigmine 50 microg kg (-1) (with glycopyrrolate 10 microg kg(-1)) at reappearance of the second response of the TOF (mean 16% twitch height of first response) after the last dose of rocuronium. Safety was evaluated by assessing adverse events, laboratory variables and vital signs.
Time to recovery of the TOF ratio of 0.9 after sugammadex compared with neostigmine was significantly shorter (P < 0.0001), being 1.5 versus 18.6 min (geometric means). Predictability of response was greater with sugammadex than neostigmine: with 98% of sugammadex patients versus 11% of neostigmine patients recovering to a TOF ratio of 0.9 within 5 min. There were no clinical events related to residual neuromuscular blockade or reoccurrence of blockade. Serious adverse events were observed in two sugammadex-treated patients and in three neostigmine-treated patients, respectively, but none were considered related to study drugs.
Sugammadex achieved significantly faster recovery of neuromuscular function after rocuronium to a TOF ratio of 0.9 compared with neostigmine (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00451217).
"Furthermore, the most common adverse effect of sugammadex is nausea . McDonagh et al  also reported that 30% of patients given 2 mg/kg sugammadex for antagonism experienced nausea, whereas others report that the drug is well tolerated  . However, none of these studies was primarily designed to evaluate the effect of sugammadex on PONV. "
"Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as neostigmine are commonly administered to reverse NMB at the end of surgery and to reduce the risk of residual paralysis and associated adverse respiratory events
[1,2]. However, these agents may provide slow and unpredictable recovery
, and are associated with several unwanted side-effects, both alone and in combination with anticholinergic agents
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compared efficacy and safety of the selective relaxant binding agent sugammadex (2 mg/kg) with neostigmine (50 μg/kg) for neuromuscular blockade (NMB) reversal in Chinese and Caucasian subjects.
This was a randomized, active-controlled, multicenter, safety-assessor-blinded study (NCT00825812) in American Society of Anesthesiologists Class 1-3 subjects undergoing surgery with propofol anesthesia. Rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was administered for endotracheal intubation, with 0.1–0.2 mg/kg maintenance doses given as required. NMB was monitored using TOF-Watch® SX. At second twitch reappearance, after last rocuronium dose, subjects received sugammadex 2 mg/kg or neostigmine 50 μg/kg plus atropine 10–20 μg/kg, according to randomization. Primary efficacy variable was time from sugammadex/neostigmine to recovery of the train-of-four (TOF) ratio to 0.9.
Overall, 230 Chinese subjects (sugammadex, n = 119, neostigmine, n = 111); and 59 Caucasian subjects (sugammadex, n = 29, neostigmine, n = 30) had evaluable data. Geometric mean (95% CI) time to recovery to TOF ratio 0.9 was 1.6 (1.5–1.7) min with sugammadex vs 9.1 (8.0–10.3) min with neostigmine in Chinese subjects. Corresponding times for Caucasian subjects were 1.4 (1.3–1.5) min and 6.7 (5.5–8.0) min, respectively. Sugammadex 2 mg/kg was generally well tolerated, with no serious adverse events reported. There was no residual NMB or recurrence of NMB.
Both Chinese and Caucasian subjects recovered from NMB significantly faster after sugammadex 2 mg/kg vs neostigmine 50 μg/kg, with a ~5.7 times (p < 0.0001) faster recovery with sugammadex vs neostigmine in Chinese subjects. Sugammadex was generally well tolerated.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00825812.
"Kopman had demonstrated that when neostigmine was given during shallow rocuronium or cisatracurium-induced neuromuscular block at 2 responses at the TOF, the TOF ratio attained 0.76 and 0.72 respectively 10 min after administration . These findings were confirmed by Blobner et al.  who have demonstrated that the median time to reach a 0.9 TOF ratio following neostigmine administered after reappearance of 2 twitches was 18.5 min. One major issue was the large interindividual variability; even 60 min after neostigmine administration less than 90% of the patients had reached a 0.9 TOF ratio. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sugammadex is belonging to a new class of drugs:
the selective relaxant binding agents. Sugammadex can reverse residual paralysis by encapsulating free circulating non depolarizing muscle relaxants. The mains advantages of sugammadex when compared with conventional anticholinesterase agents are a much faster recovery time and the unique ability, for the first time, to reverse rapidly and efficiently deep levels of neuromuscular blockade. However it only works for reversal of rocuronium or vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. When administered 3 min after rocuronium the use of a large dose (16 mg/kg) can even reverse rocuronium significantly faster than the spontaneous recovery after succinylcholine.
Korean journal of anesthesiology 12/2013; 65(6):495-500. DOI:10.4097/kjae.2013.65.6.495
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