Anti-placental growth factor reduces bone metastasis by blocking tumor cell engraftment and osteoclast differentiation.
ABSTRACT Treatment of bone metastases is largely symptomatic and is still an unmet medical need. Current therapies mainly target the late phase of tumor-induced osteoclast activation and hereby inhibit further metastatic growth. This treatment method is, however, less effective in preventing initial tumor engraftment, a process that is supposed to depend on the bone microenvironment. We explored whether bone-derived placental growth factor (PlGF), a homologue of vascular endothelial growth factor-A, regulates osteolytic metastasis. Osteogenic cells secrete PlGF, the expression of which is enhanced by bone-metastasizing breast tumor cells. Selective neutralization of host-derived PlGF by anti-mouse PlGF (alphaPlGF) reduced the incidence, number, and size of bone metastases, and preserved bone mass. alphaPlGF did not affect metastatic tumor angiogenesis but inhibited osteoclast formation by preventing the upregulation of the osteoclastogenic cytokine receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand in osteogenic cells, as well as by blocking the autocrine osteoclastogenic activity of PlGF. alphaPlGF also reduced the engraftment of tumor cells in the bone and inhibited their interaction with matrix components in the metastatic niche. alphaPlGF therefore inhibits not only the progression of metastasis but also the settlement of tumor in the bone. These findings identify novel properties of PlGF and suggest that alphaPlGF might offer opportunities for adjuvant therapy of bone metastasis.
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ABSTRACT: Breast cancer frequently metastasizes to the skeleton, interrupting the normal bone remodeling process and causing bone degradation. Osteolytic lesions are the end result of osteoclast activity; however, osteoclast differentiation and activation are mediated by osteoblast production of RANKL (receptor activator for NFκB ligand) and several osteoclastogenic cytokines. Osteoblasts themselves are negatively affected by cancer cells as evidenced by an increase in apoptosis and a decrease in proteins required for new bone formation. Thus, bone loss is due to both increased activation of osteoclasts and suppression of osteoblasts. This review summarizes the current understanding of the osteolytic mechanisms of bone metastases, including a discussion of current therapies.Breast cancer research: BCR 12/2010; 12(6):215. · 5.24 Impact Factor