Different sex ratios of children born to Indian and Pakistani immigrants in Norway
ABSTRACT A low female-to-male ratio has been observed in different Asian countries, but this phenomenon has not been well studied among immigrants living in Western societies. In this study, we investigated whether a low female-to-male ratio exists among Indian and Pakistani immigrants living in Norway. In particular, we investigated whether the determination of sex via ultrasound examination, a common obstetric procedure that has been used in Norway since the early 1980 s, has influenced the female-to-male ratio among children born to parents of Indian or Pakistani origin.
We performed a retrospective cohort study of live births in mothers of Indian (n = 1597) and Pakistani (n = 5617) origin. Data were obtained from "Statistics Norway" and the female-to-male (F/M) sex ratio was evaluated among 21,325 children born, in increasing birth order, during three stratified periods (i.e., 1969-1986, 1987-1996, and 1997-2005).
A significant low female-to-male sex ratio was observed among children in the third and fourth birth order (sex ratio 65; 95% CI 51-80) from mothers of Indian origin who gave birth after 1987. Sex ratios did not deviate from the expected natural variation in the Indian cohort from 1969 to 1986, and remained stable in the Pakistani cohort during the entire study period. However, the female-to-male sex ratio seemed less skewed in recent years (i.e., 1997-2005).
Significant differences were observed in the sex ratio of children born to mothers of Indian origin compared with children born to mothers of Pakistani origin. A skewed number of female births among higher birth orders (i.e., third or later) may partly reflect an increase in sex-selective abortion among mothers of Indian origin, although the numbers are too small to draw firm conclusions. Further research is needed to explain the observed differences in the female-to-male ratio among members of these ethnic groups who reside in Norway.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Babill Stray-Pedersen, May 30, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Background Preference for sons in India has resulted in a skewed sex ratio at live birth, probably as a consequence of female feticide. However, it is unclear if these cultural preferences are also currently present in communities who have emigrated from India to England and Wales. Methods Data of all live births in England and Wales from 2007–2011 were obtained from the Office of National Statistics. A logistic regression analysis was used to compare the probability of having a male infant in mothers born inside the United Kingdom (UK) to those born outside the UK, stratified by mothers’ region and country of birth. Results Mothers born in India were not observed to be giving birth to disproportionately more boys than mothers that were born in the UK (Odds Ratio OR: 1.00, 95% Confidence Interval CI: 0.98 - 1.02), although an excess of male births were observed in mothers born in South-East Asia (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, p = 0.005), the Middle East (OR 1.02; 95% CI: 1.00-1.05, p = 0.047), and South America (1.04; 95% CI: 1.00-1.07, p = 0.025). Mothers who were born in Africa were found to be less likely to give birth to boys than girls when compared to mothers born in the UK (OR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97–0.99), and this observation was attributable to women born in East and West Africa. Conclusion There was no evidence of an excess of males born to women from India in England and Wales. An excess of males were observed in mothers born in South-East Asia, the Middle East and South America. Women born in Africa are less likely to give birth to boys than UK born mothers, an observation that is consistent with previous data.BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 09/2014; 14(1):332. DOI:10.1186/1471-2393-14-332 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Overpopulation leads to poverty, overcrowding, pollution of air and water. Together with increasing unemployment and food shortages, these factors will decrease the quality of life for billions of people. Moreover, it is becoming evident that the climate changes are influenced by human industrial activities, which are proportional to the population size. The ongoing industrial development of the previously underdeveloped countries is precarious because environment protection measures are observed less rigorously there and, most importantly, because of the unplanned nature and large scale of this process, proportional to the population size. Countries with a high population growth are not likely to spontaneously fall below the replacement fertility level in the foreseeable future.
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ABSTRACT: In some Western countries, a disturbingly low share of girls has been observed among new-borns from Indian immigrants. Also in Norway, a previous study based on figures from 1969¿2005 showed a high percentage of boys among children of Indian origin living in Norway, when the birth was of higher order (third birth or later). This was suggested to reflect a practice of sex-selective abortions in the Indian immigrant population. In this article we have seen whether extended time series for the period 2006¿2012 give further support to this claim. Based on data from the Norwegian Central Population Register we used observations for the sex of all live births in Norway for the period 1969¿2012 where the mother was born in India. The percentage of boys was calculated for each birth order, during four sub periods. Utilising a binomial probability model we tested whether the observed sex differences among Indian-born women were significantly different from sex differences among all births. Contrary to findings from earlier periods and other Western countries, we found that Indian-born women in Norway gave birth to more girls than boys of higher order in the period 2006¿2012. This is somewhat surprising, since sex selection is usually expected to be stronger if the mother already has two or more children. The extended time series do not suggest a prevalence of sex selective abortions among Indian-born women in Norway. We discuss whether the change from a majority of boys to a majority of girls in higher order could be explained by new waves of immigrant women, by new preferences among long-residing immigrant women in Norway ¿ or by mere coincidence.BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 09/2013; 13(1):170. DOI:10.1186/1471-2393-13-170 · 2.15 Impact Factor